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Transcript of Bilingual Education
L2= 2nd Language What is Bilingualism? Bilingualism is
being able to speak
(Beykont, 2000) Bilingual vs. Immersion Bilingual programs teach ELLs content in L1 while they learn L2 Immersion programs place ELLs in L2 only classes with minimal L1 support Both programs use strategies that facilitate language development. These strategies include: separating language from instruction (meaning teachers tend to use only one language for a given lesson), not correcting the students’ language and being more concerned with understanding of content, using visuals to supplement verbal information, encouraging students with positive feedback, and providing substantial explanations (Ramirez, 1986). English is the language that instruction is given in. Teachers tailor their English to a level that the limited English proficient (LEP) students can understand. This allows them to slowly grow in their English skills as well as clearly understand content material. provide an environment that promotes positive attitudes toward both languages and cultures of both groups, and is supportive of full bilingual proficiency for both native and nonnative speakers of English (Christian, D. 1995). Importantly, only one language is used in the classroom at a time, meaning that there are clear transitions between English and Spanish instruction (Kirk Senesac, B., 2002). Historical Background Advantages Disadvantages L2 can be facilitated by L1 content base (Huerta-Macias & Kephart, 2009)
Low anxiety level
Fosters L2 acquisition and self-esteem
-L2 can be facilitated by L1 content base
-Low anxiety level
-Fosters L2 acquisition & self- esteem - L1 is harmful for L2 acquistion
- High anxiety levels
-Students rely on L1 on schools & students Pros Cons -L1 is a strong foundation for L2
-Translation & interpretation help students when they do not understand the meaning
-Build the connection btwn. L1 & L2 -English only policy
-Students will show slow progress of learnign english
-multilingual setting of a classroom is hard for teachers Total # of Bilingual students enrolled U.S. Schools School Year Enrollment % increase 2000-01 4,584,946 32.2%
1998-99 3,038,000 15.9%
1994-96 2,735,000 7.9%
1992-93 2,430,000 10.5%
1990-91 2,199,000 2.0% Source: U.S. Department of Education, 2002. Survey of the States’ Limited English Proficient students and available Programs and Services: 2001 Survey Report. of lowering student progress Teacher limitations (Huerta-Macias & Kephart, 2009)
Students’ cultural identity
Parental influences (Anderson-Mejías, 2002) On society -Global market place
-loss of cultural identity
-Language extinction Bilingualism -It promotes language varieties
-It keeps students’ heritage identity
-It helps the students develop a globalized worldview The role of Celebrating the multilingualism:
-Family visiting and activities
-Keeping diaries The practical techniques:
-Effort -How do you deal with a multilingual classroom?
-How do you demonstrate a positive attitude for students’ L1?
-How do you bridge communication gap with parents?
-How do you foster cultural/identity awareness in the classroom?
-Should we try to implement bilingual education again? Anderson-Mejías, P. L., (2002). The ESL teacher’s role in heritage language maintenance. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VIII(10). Retrieved June 2, 2010, from http://iteslj.org/Articles/Anderson-HeritageLanguage.html
Beykont, Z. F. (2000). Lifting every voice : pedagogy and politics of bilingualism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Pub. Group.
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García, E. E. (2005). Teaching and learning in two languages: bilingualism and schooling in the United States. New York: Teachers College Press.
Huerta-Macias, A & Kephart, K (2009). Reflections on Native Language Use in Adult ESL Classrooms. Adult Basic Education and Literacy Journal, Vol. 3(2), p87-96.
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Jai- In Wang