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Transcript of Infancy
Piaget’s theories begin at birth and continue through ages 11 or 12. Within his four theories he explains them to be average (aside from the sensorimotor stage), children in these stages can be above or below his suggestion onset period. Sensorimotor stage is focused on behaviors and perceptions; at this age children are having a hard time understanding that people or things exist once they are no longer in front of the child. This stage includes trial and error experimentation where children explore and manipulate objects to understand them and determine their properties. Goal directed behavior is also an example of this stages acquisitions, meaning that an intentional behavior will bring a desired result. Object permanence and symbolic thought conclude the stage, realizing that people and things exist outside of the child’s sight. Object permanence is representing physical objects and events as symbols.
Example: Child being upset shortly after parent leaves, and remaining stable and happy
child being upset continuously or intermittently, happy, sad about mom, happy, sad about dad, etc.
Cognitive Developmental Domain
Beginning in the first months:
Able to distinguish between faces
One word / multiple word sentences
Can imitate simple gestures with model present
Becomes complex imitations
Remember things out of sight (8 mos)
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Kohlberg was a moral philosopher and student of child development.
He grew famous for his study of how children development morality, what is right and wrong.
He found they develop in three levels, two stages for each.
Though infants are essentially amoral because they are so young, the Pre-Conventional stage can still be related to their development
Social and Emotional Development
-smiles and laughs at others. (smiles when seeing himself/herself in the mirror
-cries when in need of something
- recognizes familiar faces
-showing excitement by kicking and waving arms
-responds to name
-around 6-9 months baby will be able to tell from tone of voice if a caregiver is happy or sad.
-also around 6-9 months baby can experience stress/anxiety with an unfamiliar person around them.
birth - 2 years
Birth - 4 months
Infants begin with raising head and chest, sitting up with adult support, rolling over and batting at objects
4 - 8 months
Infants begin to gain control of head, trunk, and arm movements, and sit up alone.
8 -12 months
Infants begin to reach for and grasp objects, begin to creep, and stand up holding on. Pincer grasp has evolved which allows a child to pick up objects bringing together the thumb and index finger
12 - 24 months
Toddlers begin to creep, stand alone, and then walk alone. Toddlers begin to creep up stairs, run, draw on paper, and kick a ball.
24 - 36 months
Child can use crayons, ride a tricycle, and jump off a step. Children are typically not ready for toilet training until the end of their second year or beginning of their third year. Prior to this time, muscles that retain and release urine and bowel movements cannot be controlled.
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment Driven
-children focus specifically on how their actions will affect themselves.
-ex. they will do the "right" thing to avoid getting spanked and no other reason
Stage 2: Self Interest Driven
-In this stage child look for incentives or rewards for doing the "right" thing.
-ex. allowance for chores or dessert after eating your vegetables.
Vygotsky's Theory of Cognitive Development
Biological features, such as brain maturation, play a role in development
Children construct knowledge through experience
Development has social, emotional and environmental contexts
Learning leads to development
Language and PLAY both have critical roles in cognitive development
In order to support a child’s development by
applying these strategies, as an educator, I
would create many learning opportunities
imbedded within the classroom or home
environments. At this age, infancy, the
family is the most important resource and educator
and caregiver can have. It is important to provide
emotional support to families with young children.
Trust vs Mistrust - Psychosocial Development
Infants' primary task is to learn whether or not they can trust other people
trusting relationships form when an infant is readily cared for by their caregiver
"others are dependable"
develops when an infant is ignored and their primary needs aren't met
"the world is an unpredictable and dangerous place"
Caregiver provides comfort to the child/ child feels safe enough to explore.
Trust vs Mistrust
Emily is an eight month old. Her mother plays with her once in a while, but during the night Emily is left with an unchanged diaper for up to twelve hours. She is often given too little to eat because her mother didn't want to have her in the first place.
What kind of perspective would Erikson have on Emily's development?
Does not seem to care either way when caregiver is present or not.
Trust vs Mistrust
Penelope is a year old. Both of her parents pay attention to her needs and she has rarely gone hungry. Her diaper is always changed and her mom stays home to play with her. When Penelope falls, her parents pay close attention to her scrapes and bruises.
What might Erikson's perspective be on Penelope's development?
Not bothered when care giver leaves/ when caregiver comes back distressed and confused about comfort.
Disorganized/ disoriented attachment:
Infant is unaware of how to react, might be calm then angry in a matter of minutes. Not sure how to approach caregiver.
Birth to 1 year
1 to 3 years
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt - Psychosocial Development
Toddlers begin to conduct themselves rather than have caregivers satisfy their needs.
parents and other caregivers encourage self-sufficient behavior.
"I can do this"
Shame and Doubt
caregivers demand too much too soon, refuse to let children perform tasks of which they are capable, or ridicule their attempts
"I don't think I'm doing this right"
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Amanda is an eighteen month old who loves clothes. She starts to dress herself. Her parents encourage her to dress up, even though her choices in fashion aren't the best. She then starts to do many other things on her own, including getting her own snacks and using the toilet. Her parents think that she is growing up too fast.
What would Erikson think about Amanda's development?
Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
Timothy is two and he already loves the idea of cooking. He watches his mom every night. One night she asks him to help crack the eggs with her for a cake and he gets shells in the batter. His mom yells at him and tells him to never come into the kitchen again. Timothy begins to feel like he doesn't want to cook anymore.
How would Erikson describe Timothy's development?
-To focus on just infant development we would go over this pre-conventional stage.
-This stage is where a child acts in self interest and in fear of what their actions may bring to them.