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Psychological Disorders

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Bevin Schmer

on 23 February 2016

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Transcript of Psychological Disorders

Panic Disorder- Anxiety
Description-
A panic disorder is characterized by a recurrent at attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedly.

Symptoms-
Shortness of breath or hyperventilation
Heart palpitations or a racing heart
Chest pain or discomfort
Trembling or shaking
Choking feeling
Feeling unreal or detached from your surroundings
Sweating
Nausea or upset stomach
Feeling dizzy, light-headed, or faint
Numbness or tingling sensations
Hot or cold flashes
Fear of dying, losing control, or going crazy

DSM Changes-

The DSM4 has not changed in comparison to DSM5.
Psychological Disorders
American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Now in it's 5th Edition - Used in classifying disorders
Five Axis for classification has been discarded...sooo ignore that part of your text. Plus side is that the general ideas still hold, they are just in different sections.
Instead of the five axes (1-Clinical Syndromes; 2-Personality Disorders or Mental Retardation; 3-General Medical Conditions; 4- Psychosocial & Environmental Problems; 5-Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale)
...NOW Section I - DSM-5 ch org; Section II- Lists all disorders (Replaces Axes 1-3); Axis IV is now a description of significant psychosocial and contextual features; Section III - Axis V (GAF) replaced with the World Health Organization's (WHO) Disability Assessment Schedule
The Classification of Disorders
ANXIETY DISORDERS
Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Phobic / Agoraphobia Disorder
Dissociative DISORDERS
MOOD DISORDERS
Schizophrenic DISORDERS
PERSONALITY DISORDERS
Somatoform DISORDERS
SCHMER - ANTISOCIAL PERSONALITY DISORDER
Highlights of Changes from DSM-IV-TR to DSM-5. (2013, January 1). Retrieved February 18, 2015, from http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/changes from dsm-iv-tr to dsm-5.pdf


DESCRIPTION
ETIOLOGY
CITATIONS
DSM-IV TO DSM-5 - SAME
Antisocial personality disorder and pay marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, in irresponsible behavior reflects a failure to accept social norms (Weiten, 635)
Chronic mental condition that makes a person unable to relate to people in a socially acceptable way. People with Antisocial Personality Disorder have difficulty understanding socially acceptable morality, and often "antagonize, manipulate, or treat others either harshly or with callous indifference" (Mayo Clinic)
Some doctors believe that Antisocial Personality Disorder and psychopathy is the same, others think psychopathy is a more severe version of APD (Medline Plus).
The APA's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5), defines antisocial personality disorder:
A)
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others, occurring since age 15 years, as indicated by three or more of the following:
failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviors as indicated by repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest;
deception, as indicated by repeatedly lying, use of aliases, or conning others for personal profit or pleasure;
impulsivity or failure to plan ahead;
irritability and aggressiveness, as indicated by repeated physical fights or assaults;
reckless disregard for safety of self or others;
consistent irresponsibility, as indicated by repeated failure to sustain consistent work behavior or honor financial obligations;
lack of remorse, as indicated by being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another.
B)
The individual is at least age 18 years.
C)
There is evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15 years.
D)
The occurrence of antisocial behavior is not exclusively during the course of schizophrenia or a manic episode.
Biological factors – genetic predisposition, connection to autonomic nervous system (slow to classic condition) (Weiten, 634). Genetic lack of empathy (Mayo Clinic)? More men than women are affected (Medline)

Psychological factors –inadequate socialization (Weiten, 634).

Environment - dysfunctional family systems, and lack of discipline, parents with antisocial personalities tend to come from homes where discipline is erratic or ineffective, physical abuse or neglect (Weiten, 634).
A Clockwork Orange:
Alex leads a band of friends who engage in antisocial personality disorder behavior
1:29-2:16 - Driving cars off road
2:58-5:31 - Attacking friends for questioning
Antisocial personality disorder. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5-TR. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013.
Mayo Clinic Staff. "Antisocial Personality Disorder." Definition. Mayo Clinic, n.d. Web. 11 Feb. 2015. <http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/antisocial-personality-disorder/basics/definition/con-20027920>.
"Antisocial Personality Disorder: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 17 Feb. 2015. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000921.htm>.
EXAMPLE

Etiology
Etiology-
Citations-
Pictures-
Video-
Paranoid Type - Schizophrenia
Description-
Paranoid schizophrenia is dominated by delusions of persecution, along with delusions of grandeur.
Symptoms-
Auditory disturbances – hearing things that are not real (more on hallucinations and delusions)
Unexplained anger
Emotional disconnectedness
Severe anxiety and agitation
Argumentative behavior
Violent tendencies (more on violent behaviors)
Delusions of grandeur – self-importance and believing he or she possesses special powers
Frequent suicidal thoughts and behavior
Hallucinations with all 5 senses
Delusions

Criteria-
The presence of two or more of the following symptoms for at least 30 days:
Hallucinations
Delusions
Disorganized speech
Disorganized or catatonic behavior
Negative symptoms (emotional flatness, apathy, lack of speech)
Significant problems functioning at work or school, relating to other people, and taking care of oneself.
Continuous signs of schizophrenia for at least six months, with active symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, etc.) for at least one month.
No other mental health disorder, medical issue, or substance abuse problem is causing the symptoms.

DSM Changes-

DSM has changed due to the fact that you have to have a specific symptom for it to be diagnosed as a paranoid disorder. If they have criteria that are above and they are met, then that diagnosis will be made accordingly.
Genetic
: Schizophrenia has a strong hereditary component. Individuals with a first-degree relative (parent or sibling) who has schizophrenia have a 10 percent chance of developing the disorder, as opposed to the one percent chance of the general population.


Environmental:
As for the environmental factors involved, more and more research is pointing to stress, either during pregnancy or at a later stage of development. High levels of stress are believed to trigger schizophrenia by increasing the body’s production of the hormone cortisol.

Abnormal brain structure:
In addition to abnormal brain chemistry, abnormalities in brain structure may also play a role in schizophrenia. Enlarged brain ventricles are seen in some schizophrenics, indicating a deficit in the volume of brain tissue. There is also evidence of abnormally low activity in the frontal lobe, the area of the brain responsible for planning, reasoning, and decision-making.

Some studies also suggest that abnormalities in the temporal lobes, hippocampus, and amygdala are connected to schizophrenia’s positive symptoms. But despite the evidence of brain abnormalities, it is highly unlikely that schizophrenia is the result of any one problem in any one region of the brain.

Weiten, 625.
"What Is Paranoid Schizophrenia? Symptoms, Causes, Treatments - HealthyPlace." HealthyPlace. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
Paranoid Schizophrenia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/paranoid-schizophrenia/
Schizophrenia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 17, 2016, from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/schizophrenia/schizophrenia-signs-types-and-causes.htm#signs
"Paranoid Schizophrenia." YouTube. YouTube. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
Catatonic Type- Schizophrenia
Description: Catatonic schizophrenia is marked by striking motor disturbances, ranging from muscular rigidity to random motor activity.

Symptoms-

stupor (marked decrease in reactivity to the environment and in spontaneous movements and activity) or mutism;
excitement (apparently purposeless motor activity, not influenced by external stimuli);
posturing (voluntary assumption and maintenance of inappropriate or bizarre postures);
negativism (an apparently motiveless resistance to all instructions or attempts to be moved, or movement in the opposite direction);
rigidity (maintenance of a rigid posture against efforts to be moved);
waxy flexibility (maintenance of limbs and body in externally imposed positions); and
other symptoms such as command automatism (automatic compliance with
instructions), and perseveration of words and phrases
hallucinations
delusions
disorganized speech, behavior

Criteria-
Where it appears the person might have catatonic schizophrenia, the diagnosis of schizophrenia may have to be provisional until adequate evidence of the presence of other symptoms is obtained.

The presence of two or more of the following symptoms for at least 30 days:
Hallucinations
Delusions
Disorganized speech
Disorganized or catatonic behavior
Negative symptoms (emotional flatness, apathy, lack of speech)
Significant problems functioning at work or school, relating to other people, and taking care of oneself.
Continuous signs of schizophrenia for at least six months, with active symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, etc.) for at least one month.
No other mental health disorder, medical issue, or substance abuse problem is causing the symptoms.

DSM Changes-
DSM4 does not affect DSM5.
Etiology-
Genetic:
Schizophrenia has a strong hereditary component. Individuals with a first-degree relative (parent or sibling) who has schizophrenia have a 10 percent chance of developing the disorder, as opposed to the one percent chance of the general population.

Environmental:
As for the environmental factors involved, more and more research is pointing to stress, either during pregnancy or at a later stage of development. High levels of stress are believed to trigger schizophrenia by increasing the body’s production of the hormone cortisol.

Abnormal brain structure:
In addition to abnormal brain chemistry, abnormalities in brain structure may also play a role in schizophrenia. Enlarged brain ventricles are seen in some schizophrenics, indicating a deficit in the volume of brain tissue. There is also evidence of abnormally low activity in the frontal lobe, the area of the brain responsible for planning, reasoning, and decision-making.

Some studies also suggest that abnormalities in the temporal lobes, hippocampus, and amygdala are connected to schizophrenia’s positive symptoms. But despite the evidence of brain abnormalities, it is highly unlikely that schizophrenia is the result of any one problem in any one region of the brain.

Pictures-
Video-
Citations-
Weiten, 625.
"Catatonic Schizophrenia." Psych Central. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
"Schizophrenia." : Symptoms, Types, Causes, and Early Warning Signs. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
"Catatonia." YouTube. YouTube. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
Criteria used to diagnose is to ask and evaluate the following cautiously:

Experience frequent, unexpected panic attacks that aren’t tied to a specific situation
Worry a lot about having another panic attack
Are behaving differently because of the panic attacks, such as avoiding places where you’ve previously panicked

Etiology-
Genetic Factors:
studies of the association between psychiatric illness in first-degree relatives revealed a heredity of approximately 43% for panic disorder. It shows a sign of heredity, causing panic attacks to spread among the family.

Stress:
Stress can cause panic attacks due to the level of anxiety that it brings to them depending on how much they can take before they lose it, so if they had a recent incident happen that left a negative impact, stress will build up and cause a panic attack.

Biological:
With biological factors comes heredity which will make them more prone to higher leveled stress and panic disorders, IF it were hereditary. In other instances, it could be an independent factor and not hereditary, depending on one’s individual life and personal traumatic experiences.

Pictures-
Video-
Citations-
Weiten, 608.
"Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder." : Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
"Panic Disorder." : Background, Etiology, Epidemiology. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
"What Panic Attacks Feel Like." YouTube. YouTube. Web. 17 Feb. 2016.
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - Whitney
What Is PTSD?
Mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event-experiencing or witnessing.
Symptoms can include:
flashbacks
nightmares
severe anxiety
uncomfortable thoughts about the event
Many people go through traumatizing experiences and have a hard time coping with it, but that doesn’t mean they have PTSD. If the symptoms are getting worse or last for months or years then you may have PTSD. Diagnostic criteria was found in the 5th DSM edition.
OCD
Group- Anxiety
What it is:

OCD- is a disorder where you have uncontrolled unwanted thoughts and repetitive, ritualized behaviors you feel compelled to perform.

Symptoms:

Obsessive
Fear of being contaminated by germs or dirt or contaminating others
Fear of causing harm to yourself or others
Intrusive sexually explicit or violent thoughts and images
Excessive focus on religious or moral ideas
Fear of losing or not having things you might need
Order and symmetry: the idea that everything must line up “just right”
Superstitions; excessive attention to something considered lucky or unlucky
Compulsive:
Common compulsive behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder include:
Excessive double-checking of things, such as locks, appliances, and switches
Repeatedly checking in on loved ones to make sure they’re safe
Counting, tapping, repeating certain words, or doing other senseless things to reduce anxiety
Spending a lot of time washing or cleaning
Ordering or arranging things “just so”
Praying excessively or engaging in rituals triggered by religious fear
Accumulating “junk” such as old newspapers or empty food containers (hoarding)
The cause of OCD can be from the brain’s own natural chemistry of the brain or brain functions. OCD can also be traced to heredity, in most cases genes likely play a role in the development of the disorder.


Diagnosis:
To see if a person really had OCD, they perform certain tests to trigger some of the obsessions or compulsions
Group: Anxiety

What it is: Lasting and unreasonable fear caused by the presence or thought of a specific object or situation that usually poses little or no actual danger.
There are also many other types of phobic disorders for example there are animal, situational, natural environment, blood injection or injury, and other phobias such as a fear of falling down or clowns.
Symptoms:
Excessive or irrational fear of a specific object or situation
Avoiding the object with a substantial amount of stress
Physical symptoms which include: sweating, pounding of the heart, nausea, and etc.

What Causes A Phobia
Genetic and environmental factors can cause phobias. A phobia can be caused from an event that had happened that caused a lot of traumatic stress like almost drowning. Also, a phobia can be caused by exposure especially in early childhood.

Wodele, A., & Solan, M. (2015, December 11). Phobias. Retrieved February 18, 2016, from http://www.healthline.com/health/phobia-simple-specific
Dissociative Identity Disorder
DID involves the coexistence in one person, two or separate personalities or identities.
Criteria:
- 2+ displayed identities/personalities
- Recurrent gaps in memory too extensive to be blamed for ordinary forgetfulness
- Identities cause significant stress/strain in relationships, work, and important aspects of life
Symptoms:
- Individual controlled by different identities/personalities
- Identity fragmentation that causes memory loss
- Changes in identity triggered by circumstances/stressors that cause a particular identity to emerge
Etiology:
- TRAUMATIC EVENTS IN CHILDHOOD!!! (environmental factors)
- Emotional abuse
- Physical abuse
- Sexual abuse
- Neglect
Differences in DSM-IV and DSM-V
CITATIONS ):
Major Depressive Disorder
The persistent feelings of sadness/despair and loss of interest or pleasure.
Criteria:
- Depressed mood/irritable
- Suicidal ideologies
- loss in interest or pleasure
- Changes in weight, sleep, or activity
Symptoms:
- lack of energy/motivation
- excessive or trouble sleeping
- Anhedonia: diminished ability to experience pleasure
Etiology:
- Biological factors in the physical changes to the brain
- Chemistry involving neurotransmitters
- Genetics may be involved (can run in families)
- Hormone imbalance
Differences from DSM-IV to DSM-V
Citations ):
Schizoid and Schizotypal Personality Disorders
Similar to Schizophrenia, but individuals considered to be eccentric/odd. Schizoid individuals are isolated and appear cold. Schizotypal individuals have impaired social interaction and odd thinking, unusual beliefs (such as magic, and telepathy)
Citations ):
Criteria
- Poor social interaction
- Odd/eccentric behavior
- Don't form close relationships
- Misinterpret others to a point of distrust
Symptoms:
- Solitary individual
- Unsure how to respond to normal social cues
- Misinterpret events or personal meaning
- Unusual thinking, beliefs or behaviors
- Suspicious/paranoid ideas regarding others
Etiology:
- Mostly unknown causes, but a combination of genetics and environmental factors in early childhood are thought to be involved
Differences Between DSM-IV and DSM-V
A Dissociative Fugue happens when a person temporarily lose their sense of personal identity and they either wander/travel from the place they are currently at. When this happens, the person looks obviously confused and sometimes will even make up identities. These disorders often cause disruptions of memory and loss of conscious awareness.

To diagnose Dissociative Fugue
, a doctor will sometimes do EEGs
or blood work to determine if the person has any other mental illnesses or is on any medication that might have caused it. They are usually sent to a psychiatrist who use specially designed interviews.

Dissociative Fugue
is usually caused by stressful events, which is when it is most likely to occur.
It is seen most frequently during war time or a natural disaster. Alcohol and drugs can also have this effect, especially when alcohol is abused. It has been mainly linked to extreme stress.

DSM 5- dissociative fugue is now a specifier of dissociative amnesia rather than a separate diagnosis. It fits more in the class of a dissociative personality disorder and is considered to happen throughout lifetime, not just one occurrence.
The symptoms of a dissociative fugue
are pretty easily identified, the person
will begin to wander from their home
or their place of work and will often
become very confused as to where they are
and even who they are. This usually will happen
more than once.
Borderline Personality Disorder
BPD is a disorder that has to do with unstable interpersonal
relationships and impulsive behavior. This disorder affects 14 million Americans.

Symptoms of BPD
often include patterns of unstable interpersonal relationships (love hate relationships)
,extreme, persistently unstable self-image and sense of self, impulsive behavior, and unstable moods. It is a lot like bipolar
disorder but the mood swings and impulsive behavior happens nearly every day rather than stretched over a period of time.


People usually aren't diagnosed with BPD until early adulthood since some of the symptoms can be just teenager behavior.
Some psychiatrists even believe that BPD is multiple disorders overlapping each other, making it difficult to diagnose. Most psychiatrists conduct interviews though to specifically target the symptoms.

BPD can be caused by many things, but it has been widely accepted that most adults who suffer from BPD had some sort of childhood trauma happen to them. Feelings of inadequacy or a low self esteem throughout childhood can also lead to BPD. It is genetic and seems to be more commonly shared through first-degree relatives.
DSM 5 - BPD has changed drastically and is fairly a newer disorder. In the earlier DSM it mostly talked about the issues you have with yourself with BPD, like a low self esteem and a feeling of inadequacy. In the DSM 5 they have been able to find more root causes of BPD and they put a big emphasis on how it affects relationships you form, such as the lack of empathy and lack of intimacy people with BPD have.
Narcissistic personality
disorder involves having only
a concern with yourself and doing whatever it takes to fulfill your own needs to extreme extents.

Symptoms
include a false sense of superiority, arrogant, belief that he/she/them is “special”
and should only associate with other high-class people. Diagnosing a person with this is also a bit tricky, but it’s usually done by assessing how the person feels about themselves in comparison to what they think about humans in general. They have to hit 5 out of the 9 symptoms.

The causes
of a Narcissistic Personality are primarily from experiences from childhood, such as being an only child or not having many social interactions in adolescence. They have also found that an increase in testosterone can lead to a narcissistic personality.
DSM 5
is different than the previous because DSM IV mostly classified narcissistic personalities in terms of grandiosity, but now it puts a bigger focus on disturbed interpersonal relationships.
Histrionic personality disorder
Individuals with this disorder grow up
having emotional instability issues and attention seeking.

It is only diagnosed if it begins no later than early adulthood,
the behavior occurs at work, home, and in the community. It's a difficult
disorder to diagnose because the symptoms are sometimes very
unclear.

It’s caused by extreme lack of affection in early childhood
and also the lack of stable relationships. It’s genetic, and is most common
with first-degree relatives. Neuro-transmitters don't have as much to do with this disorder
as do the circumstances of early childhood development does.

Pictures for dissociate fugue
Neither the core criterion symptoms applied to the diagnosis of major depressive episode nor the requisite duration of at least 2 weeks has changed from DSM-IV.
Criteria has been expanded to include certain possession-form phenomena and functional neurological symptom. Criteria now specifically states that transitions in identity may be observable or self-reported. Individuals with DID may have recurrent gaps in memory for everyday evensts.
Pictures for BPD
The criteria for personality disorders have not changed from those in DSM-IV.
Images
(Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014)
(Healthyplace, 2015)
Pictures
(Weitan, )
(Mayo Clinic Staff, 2015)
(Long, 2015)
(Weitan, )
(Healthguide, 2011)
(Mayo Clinic, 2013)
Citations
Conversion disorder, is a condition in which you show psychological stress in physical ways. The condition was described as a health problem that starts as a mental or emotional crisis a scary or stressful incident of some kind and converts to a physical problem.
For example, in conversion disorder, your leg may become paralyzed after you fall, even though you weren't physically injured. Conversion disorder signs and symptoms appear with no underlying physical cause, and you can't control them.
Signs and symptoms of conversion disorder typically affect your movement or your senses, such as the ability to walk, swallow, see or hear. Conversion disorder symptoms can vary in severity and may come and go or be persistent.

The outcome may be better in younger children than in teenagers and adults. According to some experts, most people get better with immediate and proper management.

Conversion disorder symptoms may appear suddenly after a stressful event or trauma, whether physical or psychological. Signs and symptoms that affect movement function may include:
-Weakness or paralysis
-Abnormal movement, such as tremors or difficulty walking
-Loss of balance
-Difficulty swallowing or "a lump in the throat"
-Seizures or convulsions
-Episode of unresponsiveness

Signs and symptoms that affect the senses may include:
-Numbness or loss of the touch sensation
-Speech problems, such as inability to speak or slurred speech
-Vision problems, such as double vision or blindness
-Hearing problems or deafness

Etiology
Episodes of conversion disorder are nearly always triggered by a stressful event, an emotional conflict or another mental health disorder, such as depression.

The exact cause of conversion disorder is unknown, but the part of the brain that controls your muscles and senses may be involved. It may be the brain's way of reacting immediately to something that seems like a threat.
-Recent significant stress or emotional trauma
-Being female women are much more likely to develop conversion disorder
-Having a mental health condition, such as mood or anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder or certain personality disorders
-Having a neurological disease that causes similar symptoms, such as epilepsy
-Having a family member with conversion disorder
-A history of physical or sexual abuse and neglect in childhood

https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000954.htm

http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/287464-overview

http://www.drugs.com/health-guide/conversion-disorder-functional-neurological-symptom-disorder.html
You can develop post-traumatic stress disorder when you go through, see or learn about an event involving actual or threatened death, serious injury or sexual violation. Doctors aren’t sure why some people get PTSD, but it can be caused by some of these factors:
inherited mental health risks
life experiences
inherited aspects of your personality
Most common events that lead to PTSD are:
combat exposure
childhood neglect
physical abuse
sexual assault
physical attack
being threatened with a weapon
Citation:
Video
YouTube,. (2016). Watch service dog calm war vet's PTSD reaction. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
Google.com,. (2016). ptsd in a show - Google Search. Retrieved 22 February 2016, from https://www.google.com
Ptsd.va.gov,. (2016). What is PTSD? - PTSD: National Center for PTSD. Retrieved 22 February 2016, from http://www.ptsd.va.gov/public/PTSD-overview/basics/what-is-ptsd.asp
Ptsd.ne.gov,. (2016). Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Retrieved 22 February 2016, from http://www.ptsd.ne.gov/what-is-ptsd.html


Bipolar Disorder- Whitney
What is Bipolar Disorder? (Manic-Depressive Illness)
Brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks.
Symptoms of bipolar disorder can become severe; they are different than the normal ups and downs that everyone goes through every once in awhile. Bipolar disorder symptoms can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide.
Symptoms of this disorder can include:
mood swings
unwanted thoughts
disorganized behavior
self-harm
difficulty falling asleep
weight gain or weight loss
Etiology
This disorder can run in the family and someone with a parent that has bipolar disorder or more likely to also get it. This disorder can be present even when mood swings are less severe. Some people with bipolar disorder experience hypomania; hypomanic episode is when you feel really good and highly productive. You don’t feel like anything is wrong but your friends and family can see a change in moods. Without the correct kind of treatment, hypomania can develop severe mania or depression.

Citation:
Video:
Description
YouTube,. (2016). Bipolar Disorder in Popular Media. Retrieved 22 February 2016.
Mayoclinic.org,. (2016). Bipolar disorder Symptoms - Mayo Clinic . Retrieved 22 February 2016, from http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/bipolar-disorder/basics/symptoms/con-20027544
Google.com,. (2016). bipolar disorder - Google Search. Retrieved 22 February 2016, from https://www.google.com/search?q=bipolar+disorder&rlz=1CALEAC_enUS675US675&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=657&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwizlr3u3IvLAhVDmoMKHblMDDIQ_AUICCgD&safe=active&ssui=on#imgrc=s0lDeXVcqukuhM%3A

It is characterized by excessive, exaggerated anxiety and worry about everyday life events with no obvious reasons for worry.

Symptoms
persistent worrying
unable to get rid of worry
worrying about worrying
fatigue
irritability
sweating
trouble sleeping
headaches
nausea

Etilogy
How it is diagnosed
It is diagnosed by doctors running physical illness test and asking questions. Along with this they base it off the symptoms and how often they occur and if it is for a consistent period of time.

http://www.webmd.com/anxiety-panic/guide/generalized-anxiety-disorder?page=2

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/generalized-anxiety-disorder/basics/definition/con-20024562

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14615705

Enviornmental factors; Negitive life events, chronic stress, family problems.
Cognitive and behavioral factors; the function of worry, lack of attention
GAD could only be assigned if patients had a persistent anxiety without reporting specific symptoms of other anxiety disorders (eg Specific Phobias, Panic Disorder, Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder). With DSM III-R and DSM IV, excessive worry became the central feature of GAD, which increased its diagnostic validity
Disorganized Schizophrenia
Symptoms
Disorganized speech
Disorganized behavior
Flat or innapropaiate behavior
Difficulty feeling pleasure
delusions
Lack of motivation
Hallucinations
Alternative name
Hebphrenic schizophrenia

Etiology
Genetics- if some one in your family has it your at a higher risk of developing it, there is a less than one percent chance of getting it if not.

If a fetus suffers malnutrition and viral infection it has a higher chance of developing it.

Enviornmental- environmental triggers, push enough buttons

Imbalance of dopamine in brain neruotransmitters
http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/192361.php
Citations
https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000937.htm

http://www.schizophrenic.com/content/schizophrenia/diagnosis/disorganized-schizophrenia

DSM 5
It is not recognized

Description
Extreme expression of disorganized syndrome
charcterized by incoherent and illogical thoughts
It is considered to be a more severe type because you cannot preform your daily activites. You also may not be able to understand what they are saying which can cause agression and them to lash out and become agressive
How is treated
Antipsychotics
electroconvulsive therpy
Natural treatments
pyschotherpy
vocational skills training

What is Avoidant and Dependent Personality Disoder?
Avoidant and Dependent Personality Disorder- Whitney
Etiology
Avoidant: Causes are unknown, but scientists think that it has to do with genetic and environmental factors
Dependent: Causes are also unknown but think that it's biological and developmental. Overprotective parenting style can lead to this disorder.
Avoidant:
Excessively sensitive to potential rejection, humiation, or shame; socially withdrawn in spite of desire for acceptance from others.
Symptoms:
avoids intimate and social contact with others
extremely shy, fear ridicule, and overly concerned with looking foolish
depression
Dependent:
Exessively lacking in self-reliance and self-esteem, passively allowing others to make all decisions; constantly subordinating own needs to others' needs
Symptoms:
inability to make own decisions
difficulty being alone, lack of self-confidence


Citation:
https://www.google.com/search?q=avoidant+personality+disorder&rlz=1CALEAC_enUS681US681&espv=2&biw=1366&bih=657&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi73dDzsY7LAhVmk4MKHYdZCzIQ_AUICCgD&safe=active&ssui=on#imgrc=o8mSepa1G8C9xM%3A
http://www.mentalhealth.com/home/dx/avoidantpersonality.html


Video
Hypocondrical Neurosis
What It Is:

The belief and fear of serious illness which lasts for six months, beyond and despite medical reassurance.
The causes of hypochondrias isn't really known to the psychologic world yet. Children may have physical symptoms that resemble or mimic those of other family members. In adults, hypochondriasis may sometimes reflect a self-centered character structure or a wish to be taken care of by others; it may also have been copied from a parent's behavior. In elderly people, hypochondriasis may be associated with depression or grief. It may also involve biologically based hypersensitivity to internal stimuli.
Symptoms:
intensified awareness of ordinary
body functions, such as heartbeat,
breathing, or stomach noises.
How it's diagnosed:

The patient is not psychotic (out of touch with reality or
hallucinating).
The patient gets upset or blames the doctor when told there is "nothing wrong," or that there is a psychological basis for the problem.
There is a correlation between episodes of hypochondriacal behavior and stressful periods in the patient's life.
The behavior has lasted at least six months.
Full transcript