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The Academic IELTS exam & STRUCTURE (extended)
Transcript of The Academic IELTS exam & STRUCTURE (extended)
Recognised by over 7000 institutions
Throughout 135 countries ACADEMIC STRUCTURE? Productive Skills Receptive Skills Speaking Writing Reading Listening One Two Three Three sections
Approx 15 -18 Mins 3-4 mins EXAMPLE......
Does your name have any special meaning?
Can you tell me something about your hometown?
What do you like most about your job? Warm up / Introduction / Personal Questions 1 min preparation + 2 min monologue EXAMPLE......
Describe a well-known person. You should say,
Who he/she is?
What makes him/her famous?
Why you admire him/her? EXAMPLE......
What role do old buildings and new buildings play in modern society?
What changes have taken place in architecture in the past two decades?
Do you think it necessary to protect old buildings? 3 - 5 Mins - More complex abstract ideas 2 Tasks
(20+40) Task 1 - 150 Words (20 Mins) Summarise the information by selecting and reporting the main features, and make comparisons where relevant. EXAMPLES: Bar Charts...... Line Graphs Pie Charts Flow Charts Sample Answer Over the past 30 years, the average family has dramatically increased the number of meals that they eat at restaurants. The percentage of the family's food budget spent on restaurant meals steadily climbed. Just 10 percent of the food budget was spent on restaurant meals in 1970, and 15 percent in 1980. That percentage more than doubled in 1990, to 35 percent, and rose again in 2000 to 50 percent.
Where families eat their restaurant meals also changed during that 30-year period. In 1970, families ate the same number of meals at fast food and sit-down restaurants. In 1980, fam¬ilies ate slightly more frequently at sit-down restaurants. However, since 1990, fast food restaurants serve more meals to the families than do the sit-down restaurants. Most of the restaurant meals from 2000 were eaten at fast food restaurants. If this pattern continues, eventually the number of meals that families eat at fast food restaurants could double the number of meals they eat at sit-down restaurants. Task 2 - 250 Words (40 Mins) Candidates are given a topic to write about. Answers should be a discursive consideration of the relevant issues. EXAMPLES: Governments should make more effort to promote alternative sources of energy.
To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the way people live?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your own knowledge or experience. Many people say that the only way to guarantee getting a good job is to complete a course of university education.
Others claim that it is better to start work after school and gain experience in the world of work.
How far do you agree or disagree with these views? The topics are of general interest such as politics, sport, development, the environment, science, travel, tourism etc. etc. However no specialised knowledge is assumed or awarded. Sample answer: As a result of constant media attention, sports professionals in my country have become stars and celebrities, and those at the top are paid huge salaries. Just like movie stars, they live extravagant lifestyles with huge houses and cars.
Many people find their rewards unfair, especially when comparing these super salaries with those of top surgeons or research scientists, or even leading politicians who have the responsibility of governing the country. However, sports salaries are not determined by considering the contribution to society a person makes, or the level of responsibility he or she holds. Instead, they reflect the public popularity of sport in general and the level of public support that successful stars can generate. So the notion of ‘fairness’ is not the issue.
Those who feel that sports stars’ salaries are justified might argue that the number of professionals with real talent are very few, and the money is a recognition of the skills and dedication a person needs to be successful. Competition is constant and a player is tested every time they perform in their relatively short career. The pressure from the media is intense and there is little privacy out of the spotlight. So all of these factors may justify the huge earnings.
Personally, I think that the amount of money such sports stars make is more justified than the huge earnings of movie stars, but at the same time, it indicates that our society places more value on sport than on more essential professions and achievements. 3 Texts
40 questions Short Answer Responses Classification Choose paragraph headings Complete sentences or Summaries Job satisfaction and personnel mobility
Europe, and indeed all the major industrialised nations, is currently going through a recession.This obviously has serious implications for companies and personnel who find themselves victims of the downturn. As Britain apparently eases out of recession, there are also potentially equally serious implications for the companies who survive, associated with the employment and recruitment market in general.
During a recession, voluntary staff turnover is bound to fall sharply. Staff who have been with a company for some years will clearly not want to risk losing their accumulated redundancy rights. Furthermore, they will be unwilling to go to a new organisation where they may well be joining on a ‘last in, first out’ basis. Consequently, even if there is little or no job satisfaction in their current post, they are most likely to remain where they are, quietly sitting it out and waiting for things to improve. In Britain, this situation has been aggravated by the length and nature of the recession – as may also prove to be the case in the rest of Europe and beyond.
In the past, companies used to take on staff at the lower levels and reward loyal employees with internal promotions. This opportunity for a lifetime career with one company is no longer available, owing to ‘downsizing’ of companies, structural reorganisations and redundancy programmes, all of which have affected middle management as much as the lower layers. This reduction in the layers of management has led to flatter hierarchies, which, in turn, has reduced promotion prospects within most companies. Whereas ambitious personnel had become used to regular promotion, they now find their progress is blocked.
This situation is compounded by yet another factor. When staff at any level are taken on, it is usually from outside and promotion is increasingly through career moves between companies. Recession has created a new breed of bright young graduates, much more self-interested and cynical than in the past. They tend to be more wary, sceptical of what is on offer and consequently much tougher negotiators. Those who joined companies directly from education feel the effects most strongly and now feel uncertain and insecure in mid-life.
In many cases, this has resulted in staff dissatisfaction. Moreover, management itself has contributed to this general ill-feeling and frustration. The caring image of the recent past has gone and the fear of redundancy is often used as the prime motivator.
As a result of all these factors, when the recession eases and people find more confidence, there will be an explosion of employees seeking new opportunities to escape their current jobs. This will be led by younger, less-experienced employees and the hard-headed young graduates. ‘Headhunters’ confirm that older staff are still cautious, having seen so many good companies ‘go to the wall’, and are reluctant to jeopardise their redundancy entitlements. Past experience, however, suggests that, once triggered, the expansion in recruitment will be very rapid.
The problem which faces many organisations is one of strategic planning; of not knowing who will leave and who will stay. Often it is the best personnel who move on whilst the worst cling to the little security they have. This is clearly a problem for companies, who need a stable core on which to build strategies for future growth.
Whilst this expansion in the recruitment market is likely to happen soon in Britain, most employers are simply not prepared. With the loss of middle management, in a static marketplace, personnel management and recruitment are often conducted by junior personnel. They have only known recession and lack the experience to plan ahead and to implement strategies for growth. This is true of many other functions, leaving companies without the skills, ability or vision to structure themselves for long-term growth. Without this ability to recruit competitively for strategic planning, and given the speed at which these changes are likely to occur, a real crisis seems imminent. The education gap
Education is the passport to modern life, and a pre-condition of national prosperity. But more than a quarter of the world's adults - 900 million - cannot read or write, and more than 100 million young children are deprived of even a primary school education. In most developing countries, after decades of educational expansion, spending on learning is falling. The illiterate are virtually helpless in a world ruled by the written word, where notices and official papers can seem a mass of meaningless hieroglyphics. People who cannot decipher them are at the mercy of those who can; many, as a result, have been cheated of their rights or their land.
Studies show that people with even a basic education are healthier and eat better. They are more likely to plan their families and their children are more likely to survive. According to the World Bank, just four years of primary education enables farmers to increase productivity by ten per cent, often the difference between hunger and sufficiency. National economic returns from education outstrip those from most other forms of investment.
Enrolment: rise and fall
As they became independent, most developing countries enthusiastically embraced education. Two decades of astonishing expansion followed. Between 1960 and 1981, the world’s thirty-two poorest countries (excluding India and China, which have long had good records) increased the proportion of their children enrolled in primary school from thirty-eight to seventy-two per cent. The thirty-eight next poorest achieved almost universal primary school enrolment by 1980; up from about two-thirds in 1960. It seemed as if it would not be long before every child alive could be sure of going to school.
By the end of the 1080s, that dream had turned to bitter disillusion. The decade brought economic disaster to developing countries. They slumped when rich nations went into recession at the beginning of the 1980s, the subsequent recovery passed them by and they were hit again by the renewed recession in the late 1980s and early 1990s. By 1989, enrolment rates had dropped in one out of every five developing countries. In some African countries, the number of children in primary schools declined by a third between 1980 and 1985. Tanzania’s universal primary school enrolment fell dramatically during this period. Unesco’s Director-General, Federico Mayor, warns that this threatens to ‘set back the countries of the South by a whole generation or even more’.
The proportion of national expenditure going to education declined in more than half of developing countries over the 1980s. In the world’s thirty-seven poorest countries, the average expenditure per head on education dropped by a quarter. In Africa as a whole, says the World Bank, only $0.60 a year is spent on educational materials for each student, whilst it estimates ‘minimum requirements’ at $5.00.
Illiteracy and the poor
In industrialized countries, absolute illiteracy was largely eradicated half a century ago; they contain only two per cent of the world’s illiterate. ‘Functional illiteracy’, however, remains; in Canada, the literacy of a quarter of all adults is seriously inadequate; in the United States, estimates range from five to twenty-five per cent: in France, the total numbers range from two to eight million people, depending on the study. Most are among the poorest members of their societies.
Generally speaking, the poorer a country, the higher the number of illiterate; two-thirds of adults in the very poorest countries cannot read or write. Furthermore, the poorest individuals suffer most. The poorer a child’s family, the less likely he (or, particularly, she) is to start school and the more likely it is that those who do start will drop out.
The disadvantaged countryside
More people in the Third World live in the countryside, where schools and teachers are always scarcer. But even in the cities, the poor miss out. In Calcutta, over sixty per cent of children do not attend school because they have to work to keep the family going, or look after younger siblings to enable their mothers to work. Two-thirds of the children who either never start school or drop out early are girls. Two-thirds of the world’s illiterates are women. Yet women’s education is particularly important. The World Bank identifies it as ‘perhaps the single most important determinant of family health and nutrition’, and its research shows that infant mortality rates fall steadily, and dramatically, for every year women spend at school. But tradition, prejudices and the burden of work to be done at home ensure that daughters are pulled out of school first. In the first grade of Kampala’s primary schools, the sexes are evenly balanced; by the seventh grade, there are more than twice as many boys as girls.
Primary education: the productive dollar
Every dollar invested in primary school education, according to another World Bank study, is fifty per cent more productive than one invested in secondary schooling, and gives twice as much as one spent on universities. Yet throughout the Third World, these spending priorities are reversed.
A few countries have started to change their priorities, emphasizing primary education. Zimbabwe doubled its number of primary schools in its first five years of independence; the proportion of its budget spent on education is the fifth highest in the world, and the curriculum has been re-oriented to meet local needs. Bangladesh has opened more than 2,500 basic village primary schools with appropriate syllabuses since 1985, at an annual cost of just $15.00 per pupil. Only 1.5 per cent of the children drop out, compared to sixty per cent of their peers in the ordinary primary schools. Moreover, ninety-five per cent of all pupils, the majority girls, continue their education after leaving.
Nonetheless, all these countries are under harsh economic pressure. There is little hope for the children of the Third World countries, even if their governments do change their priorities, unless their countries are enabled to develop. Developing environmental management strategies
Strong and sustainable economic activity depends on healthy environmental management. It is being increasingly recognized by the public, government and industry that there is a need to shift smoothly form a ‘react and cure’ approach to an ‘anticipate and prevent’ approach. The mechanism governing this change started to appear three to four years ago and the momentum for change has been gathering ever since.
Whilst the need to embrace these changes is almost universally accepted, the mechanisms for change and the priorities for action have been far from clear. The public and the media point to anecdotal evidence of lack of progress or setbacks, over a bewildering range of topics. These incidents are catalogued by local and national pressure groups to enhance their own campaigns for change. The Government, under pressure from the European Community, has introduced legislation which, although progressive, often appears to industry to be fragmented and difficult to digest.
There is, therefore, a clear and often expressed need on the part of British and European management for techniques to identify and prioritise the key environmental issues for allocation of resources and action. The technique emerging as the most effective is a strategy which involves the formulation of a policy statement setting out the organisation’s philosophy on the environment and the aims to be achieved. A detailed assessment of the environmental status and performance of the operation is then undertaken, key issues identified and targets set. The performance of the operation or unit is regularly audited to measure progress towards the targets set. This environmental strategy is often called and Environmental Management System or simply referred to as an Environmental Audit.
The need for environmental strategies
Over the past few years, the incentives for introducing such an Environmental Risk Management Strategy have changed as public attitude has evolved, insurance markets have hardened and national legislation has been enacted. Environmental Risk Management Strategies may therefore be implemented for reasons of insurance, market forces, acquisitions, national legislation or Environmental Accreditation Schemes.
The basic elements of the Environmental Strategies currently being proposed by most authorities are as follows:
An Environmental Strategy is a documented plan, comprising the drawing up of an Environmental Policy and an Initial Environmental Assessment, which provides prioritized recommendations for action and targets to be achieved. This is followed by regular audits to measure progress towards the targets.
An Environmental Policy is a statement of the overall aims and principles of action of an organization with respect to the environment. It may be expressed in general terms, but it may also include quantitative targets.
Initial environmental assessment
An Initial Environmental Assessment is a comprehensive assessment of the environmental impact as a result of an organisation’s activities. It leads to a report to top management in which the key issues are identified and priorities for action allocated. This Initial Environmental Assessment is referred to in the Draft British Standards as an Environmental Effects Inventory and in the Draft Eco-Audit scheme as an Environ-mental Review. The topics covered in Initial Assessments may include a review of management systems, a historical review of the site, assessment emissions and impact on air, water and land as well as control and monitoring of emissions. Noise, odours, recycling, disposal and duty of care will usually come into the assessment, as will raw materials management, savings, transportation, storage, water conservation, energy management and products planning. Other important aspects of the assessment are the prevention and mitigation of accidents, unexpected and foreseen pollution and of course staff information, the relationship with the public and the need for Environmental Audits.
An Environmental Audit is systematic, documented, periodic and an objective evaluation of how well the organisation’s systems are performing, assessed against internal procedures and compliance with internal policies and statutory requirements.
Both the Draft British Standards and Draft Eco-Audit scheme stipulate that the audits should be carried out by personnel independent of the plant or process being audited.
The Eco-Audit scheme also proposes that organisations which are accredited under the scheme should regularly publish an environmental statement containing factual information and data on the environmental performance of each site.
Under the UK Environmental Protection Act the details declared in the application for Authorisation to Operate are included in a Register which is open to the public. Such legislation also exists in many of the other European Community countries. List of Headings
i Why lights are needed vii Seen from above
ii Lighting discourages law breakers
iii The environmental dangers
iv People at risk from bright lights
v Illuminating space
vi A problem lights do not solve
vii Seen from above
viii More light than is necessary
ix Approaching the city
Paragraph A - ix (Approaching the city)
1 Paragraph B....................
2 Paragraph C....................
3 Paragraph D....................
4 Paragraph E....................
5 Paragraph F.................... Complete each of the following statements with words taken from the passage.
Write ONE or TWO WORDS for each answer.
6 According to a recent study, well-lit streets do not .................... or make neighbourhoods safer to live in.
7 Inefficient lighting increases .................... because most electricity is produced from coal, gas or oil. 1 .......... thoughts, doubts, and fears that they cannot 2 .......... OCR sufferers develop certain ways of acting in order to 3 .......... their fears. For example, being afraid of dirt is a common 4 .........., which may lead to excessive hand washing. Or, an OCR sufferer who worries about a locked door may engage in excessive 5 .......... Some OCR sufferers keep things that other people would 6 .......... Research shows that OCR may be a disorder that is 7 .......... though members of the same family don't always show the same symptoms. It is also possible that certain infections may 8 .......... the disorder Multiple choice
7 Children usually begin to see a variety of colors by the age of
A one month.
B four months.
C one year.
D four years. The list below gives some characteristics of addiction.
Which THREE of the following are mentioned as characteristics of addiction to television?
A harmful physical effects
B loss of control over time
C destruction of relationships
D reduced intellectual performance
E discomfort when attempting to give up
F dishonesty about the extent of the addiction
YES if the statement agrees with the information.
NO if the statement contradicts the information.
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
4 One purpose of the research is to help people to manage their lives better.
5 Watching television has reduced the amount of time people spend sleeping.
6 People's brains show less activity while watching television than when reading.
7 There is a relationship between the length of time spent watching TV and economic status.
8 Pleasure increases in proportion to the length of time spent watching TV. Classify the following feelings or mental states as generally occurring:
A before watching television.
B while watching television.
C after watching television.
D both while and after watching television.
9 reduced anxiety and stress.
10 increased fatigue.
11 higher levels of concentration.
12 less mental activity.
13 worry about time wasted.
A relaxed E reduced
B accelerated F stopped momentarily
C increased G widened
D lengthened H regulated TRUE if the statement agrees with the information.
FALSE if the statement contradicts the information.
NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this
10 One group of scientists find their observations are made more difficult by bright lights.
11 It is expensive to reduce light pollution.
12 Many countries are now making light pollution illegal.
13 Old types of light often cause more pollution than more modern ones. Write NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS for each answer.
Write your answers is boxes 4-6 on your answer sheet.
4 Which country does the Zulu clan reside in?
5 When did the Portuguese arrive in KwaZulu-Natal?
6 How many members of the Zulu Kingdom are there? Multiple Selection Yes/No/Not Given True/False/Not Given Labelling a Diagram 4 Sections
25-30 Mins (+10 mins)
40 Questions SECTION 1 - SOCIAL INTERACTION SECTION 2 - PUBLIC ANNOUNCEMENT SECTION 3 - ACADEMIC INTERACTION SECTION 4 -ACADEMIC MONOLOGUE A conversation, often over the telephone, form completion and sometimes multiple choice Short answer questions, labeling diagrams, multiple choice....... Short answers, classification, multiple choice.....etc. etc... The final section resembling a university lecture may have a combination of all question types covered.
Then you have 10 minutes to copy answers to the answer sheet...... Between 9 and 11 different question types depending on who you speak to......??????? NO EXTRA TIME TO TRANSFER ANSWERS TO ANSWER SHEET 678 IELTS International Development Program
for Australian Universities and Colleges = 1989 - to date CEF IELTS CAMBRIDGE
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CAE : Advanced
FCE : First Cert.
PET : Preliminary
KET : Key C2
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