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Emotional Development in Early Years

By LeNette Battle, Amanda Maio, and Jessica Wismer

Amanda Maio

on 20 September 2012

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Transcript of Emotional Development in Early Years

Emotional Development in Early Years
LeNette Battle, Amanda Maio, Jessica Wismer Theories of Emotion
Amanda Attachment: Early Social Relationships
LeNette Variations in Attachment Relationships and Applications
Jessica Thoughts Before We Begin... Choose five adjectives or words that reflect your relationship with your mother starting from as far back as you can remember in early childhood. Why did you chose them?
(Adopted from the Adult Attachment Interview) 3 Purposes of system:
1.Proximity Maintenance
2.Secure Base
3.Safe Haven Attachment: Early Social Relationships Attachment Theory: Theorist John Bowlby's idea that an infant's connection with his or her primary caregiver, and how it changes over time, affects the child's psychosocial life- i.e. working models. (Belief also held by Erik Erikson). Mary Ainsworth "strange situation" test to measure 12-month old attachments. (1978).
1.Securely Attached (B)
2.Anxious-Ambivalent- Insecurely Attached (C)
3.Avoidant-Insecurely Attached (A)
4.Disorganized-Disoriented- Insecurely Attached (D) Strange Situation: 4 Types of Attachment http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=36GI_1PBQpM&feature=related Other Influences on Relationship Quality of Attachment 1.Infant Temperament
Leads to "goodness-to fit" model.
2. Family Dynamics
Home Environment
3. Broader Culture
Cultural context determines meaning. Application:
As counselors, it is important for us to take our student's personalities, environment, and cultural contexts into considerations. We must avoid making assumptions based on our own frame of reference. Variations in Attachment

Which parent did you feel the closest, and why? Why isn't there this feeling with the other parent?
(Adopted from the Adult Attachment Interview) Variations in Attachment 1.Infants made more than one attachment -Different types? Or same model over and over?
2. Mother interaction VS Father interaction -Possible cultural bias!
3.Impact of Parent Relationship with one another Application:
As counselors, we will have students coming from all types of homes and with different relationships with their parents/caregivers.
If the relationship between a caregiver and our student is uneasy or insecure, it may create certain behaviors that teachers view as acting out or defiance. Stability vs. Change

Think about a time when your life changed. How did you feel at first? What kind of emotional distress did you experience? How did you cope with it? Stability vs. Change

Sometimes life can change a lot for infants in certain groups
-Lower socio-economic!
-Also, insecure attachments could become stable, which is also bad for development.

Stabilization occurs around 2 according to experts
-But that doesn't mean we cannot change a child's attachment
-It will just take a lot more work and a longer period of time
-The older the child is, the more difficult it will be. Attachment in Practice

Sammie is 10 years old and in Year 5 at primary school. She has been in this school for a year and lives with foster carers and their family. She seems to be happy and settling well although she is a very anxious child and needs to have her friendship group around her to feel secure.

Marcus is 15 years old and in Year 10 at school. He has been at this school for three years and so far is only just meeting his targets. His teachers constantly say that he does not work even though they believe he is able. They believe he can achieve academically, if he puts in the work and effort. He is also known for having a volatile temper and is frequently sent out of class
following an outburst, often about uncompleted work. Because Marcus has become taller and bigger, some teachers find his behaviour threatening. Marcus lives in a residential children’s home and has been back and forth between different carers and his birth mother many times. He is determined to keep in contact with his birth mother and still sees her occasionally, but has come to accept that he cannot live with her Application to School Counseling 1. As school counselors, what kind of family situations might we see with our students?
2. How might these situations influence our students?
3. Why must we as counselors be careful when it comes to considering early family life for our students? Case Study Activity

-You will break into groups of 3 and discuss how you would handle the presented case study, guided by "thinking questions." References:

Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2011). The life span, human development for helping professionals. Pearson College Div.


Cain, C. K., & LeDoux, J. E. (2008). Emotional processing and motivation: In search of brain
mechanisms. In A. J. Elliott (Ed.), Handbook of approach and avoidance motivation (pp. 17–34).
New York: Psychology Press.

Crawford, J. (2003). emotional%20brain%20(medium) [Digital image]. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://anxietyspecialist.co.uk/Emotional%20Brain%20(Medium).JPG

Damasio, A. R. (1994). Descartes’ error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York:

F. (Director). (2012). Baby Oliver wakes up with every emotion [Motion picture on YouTube video]. ForTheOrb.

Fullard, W., & Reiling, A. M. (1976). An investigation of Lorenz’s “babyness.” Child
Development, 47, 1191–1193.
LeDoux, J. (1996). The emotional brain: The mysterious underpinnings of emotional life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Panksepp, J., Herman, B., Conner, R., Bishop, P., & Scott, J. P. (1978). The biology of social
attachments: Opiates alleviate separation distress. Biological Psychiatry, 13, 607–618.

Panksepp, J. (1982). Toward a general psychobiological theory of emotions. The
Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 5, 407–467.

Panksepp, J. (1992). A critical role for “affective neuroscience” in resolving what is basic about
basic emotions. Psychological Review, 99, 554–560.

Panksepp, J. (2008). Cognitive conceptualism: Where have all the affects gone? Additional
corrections for Barrett et al. (2007). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 305–308.
Schore, A. N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of affective development. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

S. (Director). (n.d.). Strange Situation [Motion picture on Clip of Strange Situation film on Youtube]. SocioPsychMorgannwg.

Tronick, E. Z., Als, H., & Brazelton, T. B. (1980). Monadic phase: A structural descriptive analysis of the infant-mother face to face interaction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 26, 3–24.

Tucker, D. M. (1986). Neural control of emotional communication. In P. Blanck, R. Buck, & R. Rosenthal (Eds.), Nonverbal communication in the clinical context. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press.

Understanding why: Understanding attachment and how this can affect education with special reference to adopted children and young people and those looked after by local authorities. Retrieved from http://www.ncb.org.uk/media/177349/understanding_why.pdf

Wellesley, B. (2009, September 20). EmotionWords-700311 [Digital image]. Retrieved September 20, 2012, from http://www.promotingbrilliance.com/news.html

Z. (Director). (2009). Still face experiment: Dr. Edward Tronick [Motion picture on YouTube Video]. United States: University of Massachusetts Boston. So what are emotions?

-physiological states?
-action tendencies?
-subjectively perceived experiences?

- or all of the above? Theories of Emotions Attachment in Practice

Minneapolis Experiment
Daycare and breastfeeding
Children's Cognitive Development
Adult Attachment Interview
Ainsworth work in other countries
Infant Mental Health
Disorganized Attachment and Reactive Attachment Disorder “Emotions are the stepping-stones that infants use to develop reciprocity with caregivers…” (Broderick & Blewitt, The life span: Human development for helping professionals, 2010, p. 114)



logical thinking
- Phineas Gage matrix – patients who have damage to the frontal lobe region of their brain experience cognitive dysfunctions and emotional indifference

mental health and wellness
- emotional intelligence (emotional IQ) – the ability to perceive emotions, to identify and understand their meaning, to integrate them with other kinds of cognition, and to manage them Debates in Emotional Development Theories strategies and behaviors we use to moderate our emotional experiences in order to meet the demands of different situations or to achieve our goals

social referencing
- “visual cliff” experiment

still-faced paradigm (Tronick et al., 1980)
other-directed coping behaviors
interactive repair Emotional Regulation Amanda slide 5 The Emotional Brain What purpose do our emotions serve us? - When infants are born they lack the cognitive maturity to understand the basic emotions they express Learned/Orthogenic Primarily Evolutionary/Biological - Emotional expression is fundamentally universal throughout the world

- Babies appeal to the nurturant side of humans due to physical appearance (releaser), and behaviors

- Our “biological preparedness” to respond emotionally to some harmful stimuli Izard’s Differential Emotions Theory


- you are born with a basic emotional repertoire and emotions are based on evolution rather than learning and do not require cognitive components, such as appraisal or intent, to exist.

VS. Stroufe’s Developmental Position


-you are not born with a basic emotional repertoire and you gradually acquire different emotions through orthogensis, or progressive evolution Counseling Application – How can we utilize research on emotional regulation in our future roles as School Counselors ? How will we apply this knowledge to students of depressed guardians? The right hemisphere of the brain controls nonverbal communication.
-Tentative research shows the right side of the brain to be more mature at birth than left side (Tucker 1986).
-Left side grows rapidly in the second year of life (Tucker 1986).
-The right orbital frontal region is thought to be primarily involved in social bonding (Schore 1994).

The brain's opiate system is activated by normal social interaction and social bonds (Panskepp, Herman, Conner, Bishop, & Scott 1978).

There are several emotional systems or circuits in the brain that produce: seeking, rage, fear, lust, nurturance, sorrow, and play (Le Doux 1996; Cain & LeDoux, 2008; Panskepp 1982, 1992, 2008).
- Low-road thinking glitches occur due to conditioning.
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