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Copy of P1- Disscuss factors which may affect the development of self esteem M1- Compare two theories of self-esteem that contributes to our understanding of self concept
Transcript of Copy of P1- Disscuss factors which may affect the development of self esteem M1- Compare two theories of self-esteem that contributes to our understanding of self concept
The answers to these questions were:
The answers would then determine whether the respondant had low or high self esteem. His questionnaire was origianally tested on 5,024 high school students randomly selected from 80 different high schools in the state. Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs Pyramid Maslow said that no individual can reach the last stage of 'self-actualisation' without passing each stage first Bowlby's Attachment Theory Definition of attachment: "An act of attaching or the state of being attached.
A feeling that binds one to a person, thing, cause, ideal, or the like; devotion; regard: a fond attachment to his cousin; a profound attachment to the cause of peace."
(http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/attachment) There are 4 stages of the attachment:
1) Safe haven: The individual can return to their carer when they feel threatened.
2) Secure Base: Individual can explore the world as carer gives a secure base.
3) Proximity Maintenance: Individual needs to stay close to care in order to feel safe.
4) Separation Distress: When separated from care giver individual will be distressed. Carl Roger's Humanistic Approach "Carl Rogers (1959) believed that humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to self-actualize - i.e. to fulfill one's potential and achieve the highest level of 'human-beingness' we can. Like a flower that will grow to its full potential if the conditions are right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and reach their potential if their environment is good enough."
(http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html) "The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept includes three components:
Self worth (or self-esteem) – what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father.
Self-image – How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality. At a simple level, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an affect on how a person thinks feels and behaves in the world.
Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc."
(http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html) Comparison I will be comparing Maslow's and Roger's concepts as I feel they are the most similar yet different at the same time. Similarities:
They both believe in self actualisation and emphasize the importance of developing as an individual. Differences:
"The underlying difference between Maslow and Rogers theories is that Rogers maintained that in order for someone to achieve self-actualization they must have been in a relationship in which there is congruency, empathy, and unconditional positive regard"
On the other hand Maslow says that there are specific sets of needs that you have to meet to reach self actualisation. Susan Harter's
Self esteem theory Susan Harter looks at self-esteem in children by dividing her approach into 5 areas.
Below are the 5 catorgories that are used to compare children's opinions of others:
• Athletic ability
• Social skills
• Physical appearance
• Academic ability Bowlby's attacthment theory shows a strong link to Harter's 'self esteem' becuase when the individual completes all the stages of Bowlby's theory their self esteem will be fulfilled. In 1954, Maslow introduced a Hierarchy of Needs. These needs represent the various levels of determination. The highest level is self actualisation. This means people are 'fully functional', take 'responsibility' for themselves and their actions and have a 'healthy' lifestyle. Rogers and Maslow both believe that the higher the individual goes up the pyramid the more positivly they view themselves.
Maslow believes you have better self esteem because you have met your social need and esteem needs. Rogers believes it is because you are in a growth promoting climate. If a child compares themselves negatively in a area that’s important to them it will damage their self-esteem. The self-esteem stage of Maslows theory is when the individual is confident, respectful of others and respected by others Those who are securely attactched in childhood have high self esteem as adults