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Graphic Design Essentials

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Kathleen Marquis

on 12 September 2012

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Transcript of Graphic Design Essentials

color and inks topic #1 - Kathleen Marquis What is the difference between SUBTRACTIVE COLOR and ADDITIVE COLOR? What color spaces are examples of each? Subtractive color means you subtract light from white paper as you add ink in printing (the more ink you add, the closer to black it gets). Subtractive is used in CMYK for print. Additive color means you add light to a black monitor (the more color you add, the lighter it gets, bringing you closer to white) Additive is primarily used in RGB color spaces. Why don't we print in RGB? RGB has a much broader range of color, however not all colors in RGB are printable. The light visible to the eye on a monitor doesn't translate into print some of the time. The light visible to the eye on the monitor doesn't always translate into print. RGB color that is not printable is consider to be out of gamut. What are "Spot Color Inks" and why might you choose to commercially print using spot color inks? "Spot Color Inks" are premixed inks to match preset standards. It is best to use these inks commercially to avoid unintended color shifts, especially when dealing with logos or other branding standards. What is the most commonly used spot color brand in the US? PANTONE How can you tell a Four Color Process print job from a Spot Color print job? Four color process combines colors through layering to create a larger range of color variation using percentages of CMYK colors. The four colors appear as pixelated dots when looking closely at them through a loupe. Spot color separates out the color. Unlike CMYK, spot colors are laid solid as opposed to in percentages and are thicker in ink than CMYK because of this. Spot colors are premixed to be used in print as opposed to CMYK or in addition to CMYK. Detail of CMYK as seen through a loupe. What are halftone dots and how do they work together to create a color image? Halftone dots are dots of color laying next to each other to give an allusion of color based on their size and individual color. Now onto Topic #2 Examples: Left: Halftone dots. Right: How the human eye would see this sort of arrangement from a sufficient distance. Three examples of color halftoning with CMYK separations. From left to right: The cyan separation, the magenta separation, the yellow separation, the black separation, the combined halftone pattern and finally how the human eye would observe the combined halftone pattern from a sufficient distance. (borrowed from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halftone) Black halftones on white paper CMYK halftones on white paper typography basics topic #2 - Efren Perez meanline ear bracket (with some additional labeling) Serif fonts differ from Sans Serif fonts. Explain how. Serif fonts have spikes on the ends of the strokes. Sans Serif fonts do not. What is meant by the term “x-height”? How does this effect how type is read? Show examples of different x-heights among typefaces. X-height is the distance between the baseline and the meanline in a typeface and is used in measuring legibility. The x-height is a design characteristic of the font. EXAMPLES: Typefaces with many variations such as BOLD, ITALICS, CONDENSED, etc...are said to have a large____________________________.
A sample of a typeface like this is: ____________________________________________. font family Times New Roman TYPE SIZE BASICS:
Type is measured in what units? typographic units
Generally speaking, what range of point sizes are used for body copy within a layout (the body of text)? 9 points to 12 points
What size might we choose for titles / headlines / display copy? 14 points or larger.
What factors should be taken into account when choosing type sizes and fonts? Legibility, size, style, height, font and family.
What is “line leading”? (show examples of different leading) Leading is the space between lines of type, measured by the difference between baseline to baseline and expressed in points.
What is a good basic guideline in determining how much line leading to use? (show examples of good and bad leading) 20% of typeface or around 2 points to the font size.
Explain “Tracking,” “Kerning,” and how they differ. (show an one example of tracking and one of kerning)
Tracking: Tracking is overall letter spacing. It differs from kerning because it adjusts space for groups of letters and entire blocks of text.
Kerning: Kerning is selective letter spacing. It adjusts the space between pairs of letters. SPECIAL CHARACTERS:
Explain what the following characters are, when should they be used and how to create them. (show examples of their proper use):
Hyphen: shortest of the dashes, it is the regular dash on the keyboard. The hyphen is used for conjugating words or within phone numbers. For example, twenty-three or 407-582-1234.
en dash: the mid size dash (length of the letter "n", it is formed by holding the option key with the hyphen dash. The en dash is used to indicate spans of time to show duration such as in 9:00–10:00 or April–May. em dash: the largest of the dashes (length of the letter "m") em dash is formed by holding the option key, shift, and the hyphen dash simultaneously.
It is used to show a thought within a thought such as used within a parenthetical phrase. For example: This project is a lot of work–especially building it as a prezi. bullet point: formed by holding the option key and the number 8, bullet points are used when making lists. For example:
*bullet point one
*bullet point two
Curly Quotes: quotation marks formed by holding the option key with the comma key. ( " ) Ligature: conjoined letters that form one character.
For example: f i and f l serif

sans serif slab serif (no width difference) script or
hand fonts (letters usually connect
like cursive) novelty Now onto topic #3 Show examples of your favorite fonts in use in actual printed items.
Can you identify the names of the fonts used?

Helvetica Bradley Hand ITC Times New Roman
Which of the basic classifications above would you place them in?
sans serif hand font serif
Explain how the choices in font and type treatment (basically how it’s formatted or treated) help to communicate the message and/or style of the piece.
Each type font has its own character. Serif or sans serif blend in whereas scripts and novelty fonts stand out as unusual (they become more obvious and the viewer becomes more aware of them). How the font is treated references tone. For example, if the tracking is tight, the word may feel heavier such as with "air" versus "a i r". Elements and Principles of Design topic #3 - Devin Paguandas Paper Folding Terms topic #4 - Efren Perez Finishing and Binding
Techniques topic 5 - Devin Paguandas Project 4 a collaborative graphics technology examples digital notebook Kathleen Marquis Efren Perez Devin Paguandas EXPERT
Collaborators Graphic Design Essentials with Professor Meg Curtiss
Summer 2012 REFERENCES What is the key difference between ELEMENTS of design and PRINCIPLES of design? Elements of design Line Quality Value Texture Shape Size/Proportion Direction Color Principles of design: The principles of design are theories and the elements of design are how these theories are applied. The variation of thickness or thinness within a stroke to heighten descriptive potential Notice the line quality in the leaves and the branches of this image. Simple variation of thickness give the leaves character and shape: Intensity of color such as in lighter or darker shades Notice the value range of light to dark within the skin tone of this drawing: The viewable light being reflected as opposed to absorbed by an object. Color as being a reflection of light can be explained scientifically by looking closer into plants. Chlorophyll, present is most plants, does not absorb green light wavelengths. What is not being absorbed is then reflected, giving the leaf its green color. Value is also apparent within this photograph due in part to the dramatic lighting. structure of interwoven fibers or other elements to reference a tactile association The roots of this image are interwoven with the ground line element to create a texture. Texture is often literal texture such as when paper fibers are interwoven to create a physical surface. an area that stands out from the space next to or around it due to an implied boundary (formed when lines enclose each other) This is a round shape. (similar to the shape of the top of the cup within the illustration) This is a rectangular shape. Visual focus on where the eye is being lead. Direction is often implied through value, visual lines, dark&light, as well as motion. Direction is evident within the design of this illustration. The direction of the fingers point towards the cup. The color draws attendtion towards the word "Direction" also on the cup. Unity (Harmony) relationship of visual elements that help parts function together Visual tension; elements working against each other. Conflict Unity is created here through use of a common pattern. The unifying visual element here is the background. spatial dimension/ comparison of shapes (things or magnitudes) The cup&saucer are disproportionately larger than most visual elements within the illustration as a whole. The tea drops, however, are proportionate to the size of the cup. (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Here the dandelion image is in conflict with the other simpler imagery. Direction elements are in conflict here. Dominance/Emphasis the focal point within an image o The emphasis is on the "o" here. The leaf is dominant within this frame. Repetition (rhythm) continuous/ reoccurring imagery to create a pattern or not Pattern will have repetition and rhythm, however repetition does not necessarily result in a pattern. The leaves within this frame provide an example of repetition. An example of pattern: Balance (Symmetrical &Asymmetrical) a psychological sense of visual equilibrium An example of asymmetrical balance An example of symmetrical balance Proximity Value of space between things in relation to each other. The leaf is in close proximity to the hand in this image. Now onto topic #4 The Letterfold or Trifold produces a self contained unit for insert in an envelope. The Roll/ Barrel fold (more than 3 panels) folds in on itself – smallest part first, then each panel getting slightly larger. The Accordian fold is like a zfold, but has more than 3 panels. Simple/ Parallel/ Half fold: folded in half long or short ways. Gate Fold (Double Gate Fold) fold in half and then fold the halves in like a gate. French fold is where the paper is folded and then bound at the ends. A complex fold, this fold requires a parallel half fold followed by a trifold. Now onto topic #5 Finishing Techniques: Die-cut is a cutting process of applying shapes to soft or rigid materials. The advantage is speed & accuracy. The negative is that the die has to be built and can be costly.

The scallop edge in this image is an example of a die-cut. Embossing / Debossing are processes or applications of heat &/or pressure that squeeze the fibers of the material using a die that was created to press, not cut. Embossing will raise the fibers above the paper and debossing will push below the paper. These chicks are also examples of die-cuts. An example of embossing: An example of debossing: Foil Stamping is an application of pigment or metallic foil to paper through a heated die, thereby adhering the foil to the surface.
To score is to indent such as for a fold prior to print. Perforating creates holes for tearing.
Drilling punches holes into large stacks of paper by a machine, while punching is done by hand. Scoring, Perforating, Drilling/Punching: process of adhering small fibers to a surface using spot print glue Flocking: Thermography melting plastic onto a surface Binding Techniques: Case: binding for hardcover books; arranged in signatures and sewn together One cardboard wrapped around signatures (for example, the phone book) A half fold with staples down the center of the fold Saddle Stitch: Ring Plastic Comb Binding made from plastic rings (typically in 19 rings) Spiral Bound by one continuous coil spiral Bound by rings for easy access in inserting and removing documents. Binding made by strong woven fabric Binding by staple along the side Screw and Post: bound by hardware That concludes our presentation.
Thanks for viewing!
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