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ezer agbon

on 14 February 2014

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Transcript of Telecommunications


Internet users should always be aware of the security risks when using unknown internet access. Connecting to an open Wi-Fi network could entail that users  are vulnerable to spying meaning, someone can hack into your account, read your personal messages and recover confidential information that can be passed along.

Personally, we would be willing to use public Wi-Fi however, we would take caution in the activities that we do. We would increase computer security and stick to internet routines familiar to us.

Due to the content that might be lost or stolen, we would take more prudence in using office laptops in public networks. However, steps can be taken to limit risks in using public Wi-fi.


McDonalds dominates the fast food market, especially for customers going for quick and affordable meals while Starbucks sells the experience for customers who prefer quality coffee and a relaxed ambiance
The expanded availability of Wi-Fi access in McDonalds is surely a welcome perk to customers however, it defeats the business model of the fast food chain where revenue is sourced from high volume and quick turnover of customers. They provide ergonomic tables and chairs and play fast music to speed up movement in the restaurant. McDonalds would not want customers to sit around in their store for the free internet because it reduces traffic. At the same time, McDonalds customers are on the go and would not have time to enjoy the free Wi-fi.
Meanwhile, Starbucks’ business model is to attract a leaner demographic who are willing to pay higher amounts for food and drinks so they could have quality meals and a lounge-like ambiance. Starbucks affords to provide comfortable tables and couches, easy listening music, and a slow moving vibe to allow their customers to relax and do business in the cafe. Free Wi-Fi in their stores would serve as a business strategy rather than a nice to have.
We very well doubt that there would be a significant number of Starbucks customers going to McDonalds if the later should even consider offering free Wi-Fi because they have different markets.
PCFI’s Wide Area Network (WAN) ‘s core is PLDTs IP-VPN fiber optic connections, connecting our Head Office to 4 sites (satellite offices), while the satellite offices are using local DSL for connection.

We are using wireless backhaul, mimicking that of Canopy based SMARTBRO, to provide connectivity to the Remote offices within the site.

PCFI is using 3CX for a phone system in our contact center. 3CX is a software based private branch exchange (PBX) based on the SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) standard. It enables extensions to make calls via the public switched telephone network (PSTN) or via Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) services.
3CX Phone System for Windows is an IP business phone system that completely replaces proprietary PBX systems, supports standard SIP soft/hard phones, VoIP services and traditional PSTN phone lines.
Its web-based administration makes phone system management easy. 3CX Phone System eliminates the phone wiring network and allows users to easily work remotely.

Intranet is a network inside an organization
that uses Internet technologies to provide an Internet-like environment

intranet is protected by security measures
such as passwords, encryption, and fire walls, and thus can only be accessed by authorized

A company’s intranet
can also be accessed through the intranets of customers, suppliers, and other business partners
via extranet links

Intranet is used to improve communications and collaboration among individuals and teams within the enterprise; publish and share valuable business information; and develop and deploy critical applications to support business operations and decision making

Major uses of the internet include:
Providing customer and vendor support
Marketing and sales
Customer relationship management applications
Cross-functional business applications
Applications in engineering, manufacturing, human resources, and accounting
Enterprise communications and collaboration
Strategic business alliances

Change from copper-wire based media and land-based microwave systems to fiber optic lines and communications satellite
allows for reduced installation efforts, greater communication capacity and faster transmission

Networks are playing a vital role in electronic commerce, enterprise collaboration, and internal business applications
that support the operations, management, and strategic objectives organizations

a new form of the internet that is all about high-speed telecommunications and infinite bandwidth

Internet networking technologies are becoming the primary telecommunications technology drivers

Client/Server Networks based on open system architecture is the emerging trend.
Open systems provide greater connectivity
which allows network computers and other devices to easily share information. It also allows users to use functionalities effectively

Change from analog to digital
networks allows for higher transmission speed, move greater amounts of information, save on cost, and carry multiple types of communication (data, voice, video) on the same circut
Star Network
involves a central unit that has a number of terminals tied into it. The central unit, usually the host, acts as the traffic controller among all the other computers.

It is well suited to companies with one large data processing facility shared by a number of smaller departments.

It allows multiple users to access the central unit however, heavy dependence on the host poses a risk because if it goes down, communication stops.
Examples of network management functions include:

Traffic management
– manage network resources and traffic to avoid congestion and optimize telecommunications service levels to users.

– provide authentication, encryption, and auditing functions, and enforce security policies.

Network monitoring
– troubleshoot and watch over the network, informing network administrators of potential problems before they occur.

Capacity planning
– survey network resources and traffic patterns and users’ needs to determine how best to accommodate the needs of the network as it grows and changes.

Telecommunications and network management software may reside in PCs, servers, mainframes, and communications processors

Software packages for mainframe-based WANs frequently use
teleprocessing monitors

Servers in LANs rely on network management software called
network operating systems
(e.g. Novell NetWare or Microsoft Windows NT Server)

Many software vendors also offer telecommunications software as
, which can help diverse networks communicate with each other

A variety of communications software packages are available for microcomputers, especially Internet web browsers like Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Explorer
Telecommunications System Components
Input/output devices that use telecommunications networks to transmit or receive data. Some of these devices include:

Video terminals
Office equipment
Transactional terminals
1. Terminal
are the most common type of telecommunications processor.

It provides an interface between a computer and the channel (phone line, cable line or cellular connection).

It converts digital signals to analog signals and back hence, the name Modem (

2. Processor
3. Channels and Media
Communication of information by electronic transmission of signals
Devices that support data transmission and reception between terminals and computers
Internetworked Processors

Information travels in the form of electromagnetic signals. There are 2 type of signals,
allows a single channel to carry simultaneous data transmission from many terminals.

It merges transmission of several terminals at one end, while similar units separates transmissions at the receiving end.
Internetwork processors
special-purpose hardware that interconnect telecommunication networks. It includes switches, routers, hubs, and gateways.
Channels connect the message source with the message receiver

A channel can use different kinds of media which physically link the devices in a network

Types of Media include:
Twisted Pair Wires
Coaxial Cables
Fiber Optic Cables
Wireless Transmission
Twisted pair
consist of copper wire twisted in pairs covered with an insulating layer.

An older transmission medium, it is used to transmit analog phone conversations but can be used for digital communication as well.

It is inexpensive and widely available but relatively slow for transmitting data
Coaxial Cable
consists of an inner conductor wire surrounded by insulation, a conductive shield, and a cover

It is used by cable TV companies to bring television signals into the home.

It can transmit large volumes of data quickly however, it is relatively hard to wire in buildings, cannot support analog phone conversations and more expensive than twisted pair wires.
Fiber optics cables
Consists of thousands of extremely thin strands of glass or plastic bound together in a sheathing

It is a fast, light and durable transmission medium. It can transfer large volume of data and can carry digital and analog signals. However, it is more expensive and harder to install.

Wireless transmission
sends signals through air or space without being tied to a physical line. Some examples are microwave, satellite, cellular and wireless LANs.
Microwave transmission
or uses the atmosphere as the medium through which to transmit the signal. It transmits high-speed radio signals in a line-of-sight path between relay stations.

It can carry high-volume data without cables. However, investment can be quite expensive.
Communication satellites
use orbiting satellites to transmit data. It is practically a microwave station in outer space.

It is typically used for communications in large, geographically dispersed organizations that would be difficult to tie together through cabling media.

Needless to say, it is very expensive and useful life only spans 7-10 years.
Cellular transmission
works by using radio waves to communicate with radio antennas placed within adjacent geographic area called cells.

It is an important medium for mobile voice and data communications.
Other wireless LANs include:

uses infrared light to establish network links between LAN components

Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi)
makes use of access points to wirelessly connect users to networks within a range of 250-1000 feet

, similar to Wi-Fi, connects devices to a network using access points. It enables digital devices to connect directly however, with less speed and distance, compared to Wi-Fi.
make connections between telecom circuits so messages can reach its intended destination.
interconnect networks based on different rules or
, so a message can be routed to its destination.
allows for sharing of network resources such as LAN, workstation, printers, etc.
connect networks that uses different communication architectures.

Types of Telecommunication Networks
Types of Network Structures/ Topologies
4. Computers
Telecommunications networks interconnect computers of all sizes and types, including:

Host Computers (mainframes)
Front-End Processors (minicomputers)
Network Servers (microcomputers)

Host Computers
are known for their large size, amount of storage, processing power and high level of reliability. It has the ability to host multiple operating systems.

Mainframes are designed to handle very high volume of input and output.
Front End Processors
are small computer that receives data from input devices and performs some initial processing tasks on it before passing it to a mainframe
Network Servers
are used as the central repository of data and various programs that are shared by users in a network
5. Software
Network Management
packages such as LAN network operating systems and WAN telecommunications monitors:

Determine transmission priorities
Route (switch) messages, polls, and terminals in the network
Form waiting lines (queues) of transmission requests
Detect and correct transmission errors
Log statistics of network activity
Protect network resources from unauthorized access

Wide Area Networks (WAN)
cover large geographic areas such as a large city or metropolitan area, a whole country , an many countries and continents

Local Area Networks (LAN)
connect information-processing devices within a limited physical area such as offices, classrooms, buildings, and manufacturing plants.

It uses a variety of telecommunications media to interconnect microcomputer workstations and computer peripherals.

Most LANs use a network server that controls telecommunications and the use of network resources.
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
is a secure network that uses the Internet to establish secure intranets between its distant branch offices and manufacturing plants.

It also secures the extranet between itself and suppliers.
Client/Server Networks
connect end users, by LAN, to other LANs and wide area networks of client workstations and servers.

It has become the predominant information architecture of enterprise computing.

Computing power has rapidly become distributed and interconnected throughout many organizations by networked computer systems that take the form of client/server networks.
Network Computing or Cloud Computing
views networks as the central computing resource of any computing environment. It appears to be the architecture that will take computing into the next century.
Peer-to-peer network (P2P)
is where there is no central directory or server.

First, the file-sharing software connects the PC with one of the online users in the network. Then an active link to your user name is transmitted from peer to peer to all the online users in the network that the first user (and the other online users) encountered in previous sessions. In this way, active links to more and more peers spread throughout the network the more it is used.

When you request a file, the software searches every online user and sends your list of active file names related to your request.
Bus Network
has a decentralized approach, compared to a star. It connects a number of computers through a single length of wire, cable, or optical fiber.

There are no host computers but users are still able to share files.
Ring Network
is much like a bus network, except the length of wire, cable, or optical fiber connects to form a loop. Local computer processors are tied together sequentially in a ring with each device being connected to two other devices.

Compared to the star, it is also reliable and less costly to set up.
Is the classification of communications speed and capacity of telecommunications networks

Baud Rate
is the number of times per second that a data communications signal changes; with each change, one or more bits can be transmitted - BPS or Bits Per Second

Hello, we are:
Industry Trends

Message undergoes the following steps:
Sender initiates communication message
Device puts sender’s message in a telecommunications medium
Telecommunications medium transfers message to receiver’s location
Device takes message off the communication medium
Recipient receives the message
Ezer Agbon
Danna Colina
Eloi Craw
Leah Martizano

Also known as

Today, we will attempt to integrate previous presentations about
, as we talk about....
Telecommunications and Networks
At the end of this presentation, you will be able to:
Learn Telecommunications and Network concepts
Discover industry trends and applications
Identify how telecommunications happen in the business environment
Appreciate how PROFRIENDS uses telecommunications to run the business
Telecommunications and Networks
Our Road Map for Learning
We will talk about Telecommunication trends and applications in the industry...
We will talk about how Telecommunications is applied in PROFRIENDS...
And we will discuss the real world case of Starbucks...
We will talk about how telecommunications work...
1. Terminal
2. Processor
3. Channel
4. Computers
5. Software
Circuit Switching
is a established between the sender and the receiver, that remains in effect until the communications session is completed (e.g., telephone)

Message Switching
transmits a message a block at a time from one switching device to another

Packet Switching
involves subdividing communications messages into fixed or variable groups called packets

Cell Switching
breaks voice, video, and other data into, fixed cells, and routes them to their next destination in the network
Manner through which data is transmitted
Industry Trends

The growth of the Internet has revolutionized telecommunications

The most popular Internet applications are e-mail, instant messaging, browsing the sites on the web, and participating in newsgroups and chat rooms

The Internet has become the key platform for a rapidly expanding list of information, entertainment services and e-business

Internet Revolution
Internet Revolution
Role of Intranets
Extranets are network links that use Internet technologies to interconnect the intranet of a business with the intranets of its customers, suppliers, or other business partners

Extranets provide business value by facilitating and strengthening the business relationships of a company with customers and suppliers, improving collaboration with its business partners, and enabling the development of new kinds of Web-based services

Role of Extranet
Telecommunication and network needs of PROFRIENDS is driven by the volume of transactions and processes implemented by the business

Due to its rapid expansion, PROFRIENDS relies on telecommunications to run the business efficiently, support internal and external clients, and secure necessary information to run the business

Application to PROFRIENDS
PCFI’s Local Area Network (LAN) consists of a Cisco catalyst as a core switch, which distributes the aggregated 2gbps per floor where several HP layer 3 switches. Endpoint connections to workstations vary from 100mbps to 1Gbps, depending on the age of the work station.

We use eMeralco via 4MBPS Fiber Optic Cable and backed up with a PLDT DSL 6Mbps for internet connections.

PROFRIENDS Contact Center
1.Do you agree with the plans by Starbucks to offer time-limited free Wi-Fi would be enough to instill that kind of loyalty? Based on experiences of other coffee houses, do you think free access was a critical factor in developing a loyal customer base?
Starbucks: The Future of Public Wi-Fi

Free Wi-Fi would be a big help to entice consumers to avail of product and services as some already considered this service is a must rather than a nice to have.

Starbucks has realized that having a Wi-Fi splash page encourage partnership programs and add value to the customer experience. Free Wi-Fi is used more as an incentive in Starbucks which made customers which made the people switch to them.

Free Wi-Fi access was a critical factor in developing  loyal customer base is not completely off-target. While offering free Wi-Fi access contributes to developing and maintaining a loyal customer base, it may be more accurate to say it may be critical to merely keeping up with the competition.

2. Part of the reason for Starbuck’s move had to do with increased competition from chains like Mc Donald’s for the morning breakfast crowd. Do you think that free wireless access by such a competitor would have moved a significant portion of Starbucks customers away? Why or why not?
Starbucks: The Future of Public Wi-Fi
3. The case notes some companies that offer free Wi-Fi in exchange for viewing ads or answering questions for market research studies. Would you be willing to do so in order to get free wireless access, say, at an airport? Would your answer change if you were using a corporate laptop vs your own, because of security concerns?
Starbucks: The Future of Public Wi-Fi
We hope you learned useful information about Telecommunications and Networks in presentation. To test your understanding, kindly answer the 5 item quiz below by identifying the best answer possible.

First person to get all the right answers posted on the Blackboard, together with your reaction on our presentation,
wins a prize!

1. Star, Ring and Bus networks are examples of...
2. Telecommunication technologies that do not rely on physical media such as cables or fiber optics are...
3. Network in which end-user PCs are tied to network servers to share resources and application processing...
4. A communication network covering a large geography...
5. Any arrangement in which a sender transmits a message to a receiver over a channel consisting of some type of medium...
Thank you!!! :)
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