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Trauma and Recovery
Transcript of Trauma and Recovery
Uncontrollability (Natural Disasters) Other Characteristics include Intense Fear Helplessness Horror Actual threatened death
or serious injury threat of physcial integrity
of self and others Post-trauma is different from Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Not all trauma vicitms develop PTSD Smaller population Actual diagnosis from DSM
and doesn't capture all phenomena that are all aftermath of trauma Example: shame and guilt Types of Trauma Episodic vs. Gradual Natural Disasters War/Military Combat Terrorist Attack Rape/Sexual Assault Domestic Violence Technological Catastrophes Criminal Assault (Harvey, 1996) Defined Recovery as... 1. Authority over remembering process
2. Integration of memory and affect
3. Affect tolerance
4. Symptom mastery
5. Self-esteem & self-cohesion
7. Meaning-making Stages of Recovery (Herman, 1997) 1. Establishment of safety
naming the problem
2. Rememberance and mourning
transforming traumatic memory
3. Reconnection with ordinary life
learning to fight
reconciling with oneself
finding survivor mission Bandura came up with the construct Stemmed from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) Has shown strong correlation with trauma recovery
(Benight & Bandura, 2004; Luszczynska, Benight, & Cieslak, 2009; Hirschel & Schulenberg, 2009) Strong predictor varaiable Part of coping strategy (Bandura, 1997, 2004) Belief that one has power to influence one's behavior Perception of control is different from ability to actually act them out learning by observing others environment "enabling mastery experience [in self-efficacy ]is principal vehicle in personal change." (Benight & Bandura, 2004) High vs. Low General vs. Specific High efficacy
Low efficacy General efficacy
Specific efficacy (Harvey, 1996, 2007) "efficacy of trauma focused internventions depend on the degree to which they enhance the persona-community relationship and achieve 'ecological fit' within individually varied recovery contexts." (p. 3) "quality and helpfulness of the relationship existing between the individual and his/her social context" (p.7) Stemmed from Bronfenbrenner's Ecological System Theory (EST) "trauma is not an isolated transient event" (Benight & Bandura, 2004, p. 1134) Ecology of trauma Person x Environment x Event Growing area of interest even outside of psychology other prevalent studies focus other variables like stress, identity development, depression, etc. Both self-efficacy and ecological view emphasizes social support Researchers emphasizes the importance of cultural awareness and competence of clinicians (Harvey, 1996, 2007) Victims can articulate the experience better Discussion How can you see the role of persuasion take place in trauma recovery?
What are some other factors you think are important?
What are some other ways that multicultural perspectives can be integrated? By Noory Kim Seattle University