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Classical Greece (2000 B.C. - 300 B.C.)

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Eric Austin

on 4 March 2016

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Transcript of Classical Greece (2000 B.C. - 300 B.C.)

1575 B.C.
1150 B.C.
2000 B.C.
725 B.C.
Classical Greece (2000 B.C. - 300 B.C.)
Mycenaean Contact w/Minoans
Greek Culture Declines Under the Dorians
Sparta Builds A Military State
Greece's Golden Age
Mycenaean Kings dominate Greece
Dorian Age of Greece
Trojan War
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trojan_War
Aegean Sea
Ionian Sea
Geography Shapes Greek Life
Black Sea
The sea shaped Greek civilization
rugged mountains cover about 3/4 of Greece
Greeks developed small, independent communities
moderate temperatures supported an outdoor life
Mycenaean Civilization Develops
c. 2000 B.C. Indo-European migrations settle on Greek Mainland
Mycenae: located in southern Greece
Mycenaeans come into contact with Minoan civilization c. 1500 B.C.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minoan_civilization
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece
Minoans influences include...
seaborne trade
writing systems
art
religious practices
politics
literature
western civilization has its roots in these two civilizations
Warring City-States
Persian Wars
Hellenistic Culture
1200s B.C. - Mycenaeans fought a ten year war with Troy
Mycenaean civilization collapses
less advanced than the Mycenaeans
the art of writing is lost during this time
Homer: Famous Greek Storyteller
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homer
Iliad
Odyssey
tells of the battles & events of the Trojan War
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iliad
tells the story of the journey home of Odysseus
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odyssey
Greek Mythology
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_mythology
Greeks sought to understand the mysteries of nature and the power of human passions.
Greek City-States
c. 750 B.C.
polis
: the fundamental political unit in ancient Greece
most city-states controlled 50-500 square miles of territory
Monarchy
Aristocracy
Oligarchy
Tyrant
Democracy
a single person (king) ruled the government
government ruled by a small group of nobility
government ruled by a few powerful people
powerful individuals who seized control of the government
621 B.C.
Building Democracy
Draco
: Athenian nobleman
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draco_%28lawgiver%29
developed a legal code based on the idea that all Athenians, rich and poor, were equal under the law
"Draconian"
death became the punishment for nearly every crime
Building Democracy
594 B.C.
Solon
: Athenian Statesman
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solon
Introduced more democratic reforms
no citizen should own another citizen
outlawed debt slavery
organized Athenians into 4 social classes according to wealth
any citizen could bring charges against wrongdoers
500 B.C.
Building Democracy
Cleisthenes
: Athenian Nobleman
"Father of Athenian Democracy"
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleisthenes
broke up the power of the nobility
increased the power of the assembly
created the Council of Five Hundred
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boule_%28ancient_Greece%29#The_Reforms_of_Cleisthenes
organized into ten groups based on where they lived
ALL citizens could submit laws for debate and passage
proposed laws and counseled the assembly
ONLY
free adult male property owners born in Athens were considered citizens
Sparta Conquers Messenia
Messenians became
helots
(peasants forced to stay on the land they worked)
Spartan Government & Society
Assembly
: composed of ALL Spartan citizens
Council of Elders
: made of 30 older citizens
FIVE
elected officials carried out laws
TWO
Kings ruled Sparta's military
Citizens
: original inhabitants of Sparta
Noncitizens
: free and worked in commerce and industry
Helots
: slaves who worked in the fields
Spartan Daily Life
valued duty, strength, and discipline
Spartan boys left home at age 7 and trained until age 30
Spartan girls also received military training
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spartan_army
499 B.C. - 449 B.C.
conflict between Greece & the Persian Empire
546 B.C.
Persians
CONQUER
Ionia
490 B.C. - Battle of Marathon
25,000 Persians battled 10,000 Athenians
Athens wins the battle
Pheidippides brought news of the Persian defeat to Athens
"Rejoice we Conquer"
480 B.C. - Battle of Thermopylae & Salamis
Xerxes assembled an army to crush Athens
faced 7,000 Greeks at the narrow pass at Thermopylae
Greeks stopped the Persian advance for three days
Themistocles convinced Athenians to fight at sea
Consequences of the Persian Wars
Delian League
: alliance of Greek city-states
Athens emerges as a leader of the Delian League
Created an Athenian Empire leading to a golden age of Athens
477 B.C. - 431 B.C.
Age of Pericles
1. Strengthen Athenian Democracy
2. Hold & Strengthen the Empire
3. Glorify Athens
Increased the number of public officials who were paid
Introduced Direct Democracy to Athens
Used Delian League money to strengthen the navy
Dominated all the league city-states
Used Delian League money to beautify Athens with art and architecture
Art & Architecture
Drama & History
Philosophy
Parthenon
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Parthenon
aimed to create figures that were graceful, strong and perfectly formed
tried to capture the grace of the idealized human body
Peloponnesian War
431 B.C. - 404 B.C.
The Greeks invented Drama
Tragedy
Comedy
History
serious drama about common themes
Aeschylus
Sophocles
Euripedes
love, hate, war, betrayal
contained scenes with slapstick & crude humor
Aristophanes
Herodotus
Thucydides
pioneered the accurate reporting of events
Sparta had the stronger army
Athens had the stronger navy
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peloponnesian_War
Pericles strategy was to avoid land battles
Sparta marched into Athenian territory burning food supplies
A plague swept through Athens killing 1/3 of the population
421 B.C. - Sparta & Athens sign a truce
413 B.C. - Athens is defeated at Syracuse
404 B.C. - Athens surrenders
"Lovers of Wisdom"
TWO Assumptions:
1. The universe is put together in an orderly way
2. People can understand these laws through logic and reason
300 B.C.
Alexander's Empire
336 B.C. - 323 B.C.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great
336 B.C - Philip II is killed at his daughters wedding and Alexander becomes King of Macedonia
334 B.C.
- 35,000 soldiers to invade Persian Empire
Alexander attacked Persian Army at Granicus River
Fought Darius III at Issus and won Anatolia
332 B.C.
- Marched into Egypt as treated as liberator
Battle at Gaugamela
- Alexander defeats Persia
326 B.C.
- Alexander reaches the Indus River Valley
323 B.C.
- Alexander Dies
Greek culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hellenistic_period
Alexandria
: became the center of commerce and culture
Alexandrian Library
: collection of half a million papyrus scrolls
Astronomy
Math & Physics
Euclid
: his ideas are the basis for Geometry
Archimedes
: accurately estimated the value of pi
Stoicism
Epicureanism
Realism in Sculpture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epicureanism
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stoicism
Greek Philosopher Zeno
Founded by Epicurus
people should live virtuous lives in harmony with the will of God
main goal of humans was to achieve harmony of body and mind
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece
Peloponnesus
Athens
Sparta
Mycenaean kings dominate Greece from c. 1600 - 1100 B.C.
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