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Cell Organelles

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Jennifer Meyer

on 6 September 2016

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Transcript of Cell Organelles

The Cell
The Plasma Membrane
Gel-like middle
Most functions of eukaryoic cell are controlled by the nucleus
houses and protects the cell's genetic information (instructions for how to grow) in chromosomes
structures in the nucleus made of DNA and protein that contain genetic information
Nuclear Envelope
Double membrane called the nuclear envelope
nuclear pores
provide passageways for RNA and other materials to leave the nucleus
Organelles that make ATP
ATP powers the cell
Has its own DNA
Build proteins
Some free and some are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum
System of tubes and sacs made of membrane
Intracellular highway -
path for molecules to different parts of the cell
Rough ER
a system of interconnected, flattened sacs covered with ribosomes
produces phospholipids and proteins
Smooth ER
a smooth appearance
builds lipids such as cholesterol
interconnected with rough ER
Golgi Apparatus
system of flattened, membranous sacs
picking up a pattern?
sacs nearest to nucleus receive vesicles from the ER with newly made proteins or lipids
Shipping department of the cell
Small,spherically shaped sacs
surrounded by a single membrane
classified by their contents
Vesicles move packages
including outside of the cell by fusing with the plasma membrane
(type of vesicle)
vesicles that bud from the golgi apparatus AND contain digestive enzymes
break down molecules
breaking down cells when it is time for the cell to die :( RIP
Similar to lysosomes but contain different enzymes
Are NOT produced by the golgi apparatus
The Cytoskeleton
Overview of Cell Organelles
The Plant Cell
The Cell Wall
rigid layer
lies outside the cell's plasma membrane
Contain cellulose - very stiff
Protects the plant as well as holding it up
Central Vacuole
large, fluid-filled organelle
stores water, enzymes, waste (almost anything)
can be up to 20% of plan cell's volume
Vacuoles fill to keep plant upright, but when little water plant wilts
make food for PLANT cell from light!
filled with
l - green pigment (what makes plants green)
Thylakoid- flattened, membranous sacs
How did the chloroplast get its own DNA?
Review of Manufacturing and Breakdown
red arrows show pathway
membranes and proteins produced by ER travel in transport vesicles to Golgi and on to other destinations.
Some vesicles develop into lysosomes or vacuoles
Others fuse with plasma membrane
The Endomembrane System
(rough and smooth)
Golgi apparatus
Cell Transport (travel)
We will talk about this with plant cells later
straight, hollow tubes composed of globular proteins called
shape and support the cell
Act as tracks for organelles to move
lysosomes might use "feet" to "walk" along microtubule to reach a food vacuole
Animal cells
: grow out from region near nucleus called
used in cell division
Intermediate Filaments
in most animal cells
fibrous proteins that supercoil into cables
reinforce cell shape
anchor some organelles
nucleus sits in cage of IF
permanent fixtures unlike microtubules
solid rods of globular proteins called actin
twisted double chain
3D network just inside plasma membrane
supports cell shape
important for animals w/ no cell wall
Cell movement
EX: amoeboid crawling
Cilia & Flagella
Plant Cells Only
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