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The Digestive System

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jenniffer de leon

on 8 October 2013

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Transcript of The Digestive System

The Digestive System
The Salivary Glands:
Parotid gland- are located near the ear and are in the upper part of each cheek.

Submandibular gland- are foud on both sides just under the jaw, towards the back of the mouth

Sublingual gland - are beneath the tongue, and supply saliva to the floor of the mouth.

Pharynx and Esophagus
A cone-shaped passageway leading from the oral cavities to the esophagus

The oral pharynx begins at the back of the mouth

It down the throat to the epiglottis, a flap of tissue that covers the air passage to the lungs and that moves food to the esophagus.
Stomach/ Large and Small Intestine
-is located in the left side of the upper abdomen.

• Secretes acid and enzymes that digest food.

• Ridges of muscle tissue called rugae line the stomach.

• They help in further breaking down the foods that enter the stomach.

• This allows the small intestine to absorb nutrients.
The Anatomy
The Physiology
Conditions, Diseases, Cures and Treatments
Digestive System and other systems…Working together !
Digestive System is responsible for taking foods and turning them into energy and nutrients. It allows the body to break down and absorb food, and remove waste.

• Works with the cardiovascular and lymphoid systems
• Provides fuel that keeps all the body’s cells running and building blocks that are needed for cell growth and repair
• Consists of the digestive tract
• Digestive tract begins at the oral cavity and continues through the pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine

Six processes of this system:
1) Ingestion of food
2) Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes
3) Combination and movement of food and wastes through the body
4) Digestion of food into smaller pieces
5) Absorption of nutrients
6) Excretion of wastes

• When materials enter the digestive tract using the mouth
• Mouth is responsible for food to enter in your system

• Release of water, acids, enzymes, buffers and salts by the epithelium of the digestive tract and by glandular organs
• Secretes around seven liters of fluids
• Secrete saliva, mucus, hydrochloric acid, enzymes and bile
• Saliva moistens dry food
• Mucus forms a protective layer in the gastrointestinal tract to lubricate surfaces so that materials pass smoothly
• Hydrochloric acid assist in digesting food chemically and kills bacteria
• Enzymes detach proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids into smaller pieces
• Bile beat lipids into tiny drops for easy digestion

Combination & Movement
• Swallowing
-process of using smooth muscles in the mouth, tongue, and pharynx to push food out of the mouth, through pharynx and into esophagus
• Peristalsis
-travels through the gastrointestinal tract
-move incomplete digested food down the tract
-takes many waves for food to travel from the esophagus, through the stomach and intestines and reach to tract
• Segmentation
-occurs only in small intestines
-helps increase absorption of nutrients by combining foods
• Mechanical processing
-crushing and cutting that makes materials easier to move along the digestive tract
-increases surface area more disposed to enzymatic attack
• Process of turning large pieces of food into smaller pieces suitable for absorption
• Begins with chewing of the food and continues through the mixing of food by the stomach and intestines
• Simple molecules are being absorbed
• Digestive enzymes detach simple molecules
• Pancreas secrete pancreatic juice, it digests lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids

• Begins in the stomach with simple molecules
• Movement of organic substrates, electrolytes, vitamins and water across the digestive epithelium and into the interstitial fluid of the digestive tract
• Takes place in the walls of the small intestine
• The walls are densely fold to use the surface area for making contact with the food
• Small blood and lymphatic pick up the molecules
• Molecules are carried to the rest of the body
• Large intestine absorbs water, vitamin B and K

• Removal of waste products from body fluids
• Digestive tract and glandular organs discharge waste products in secretions
• Defecation is the ejection of materials from digestive tract
• Defecation removes indigestible substances from the body so that the gut wouldn’t be gathered with these substances
• Controlled freely by the conscious of the brain, has to be done on a regular basis
contains the tongue, salivary glands, and teeth

Functions include:
1) Breakdown of material before swallowing
2) Mechanical processing through the actions of the teeth and tongue
3) Lubrication by mixing with salivary secretions
4) Reduced digestion of carbohydrates and lipids
Used to bring foods into the oral cavity
Functions include:
1) Mechanical processing by compression, abrasion, and bending
2) Assist in chewing and to prepare food for swallowing
3) Sensory analysis by touch, temperature and taste receptors
4) Secretion of mucins

Salivary Glands
-Three pairs of salivary glands secrete into the oral cavity

-Each pair of gland produces saliva

1) Parotid Salivary Gland produces a secretion containing large amounts of salivary amylase which is an enzyme that breaks down starches

2) Sublingual Salivary Gland produces a mucous secretion that acts as a buffer and lubricant

3) Submandibular Salivary Gland secretes a mixture of buffers, glycoproteins and salivary amylase

-Glycoproteins are responsible for the lubricating action of saliva

-Saliva secretion flushes the oral surfaces, keeping them clean

-Buffers prevent the increase of acids formed by bacterial actions

-Saliva contains antibodies and lysozome which helps control populations of oral bacteria
Saliva Functions:
1) Lubricating the mouth

2) Moistening and lubricating materials in the mouth

3) Dissolving chemicals

4) Digestion of carbohydrates before the material is swallowed

performs chewing of food
Four types:

1) Incisors are useful for clipping or cutting. Have a single root.

2) Cuspids used for tearing or slashing. Have a single root.

3) Bicuspids crush, smash and grind. Have one or two roots

4) Molars are adapted for crushing and grinding. Have three or more roots.
Passageway for solid foods, liquids and air

Food normally passes through the oropharynx and larynopharx (regions of the pharynx) on its way to the esophagus

Prepares the stomach to receive food
1) Cephalic phase begins when you see, smell, taste or think of food

2) Gastric phase begins with the arrival of food in the stomach and it increases secretion started in cephalic stage

3) Intestinal phase controls rate of chyme entry into duodenum

Gastric Activity:
receives the bolus from the esophagus and aids in digestion

Functions include:
1) Storage of ingested food
2) Mechanical breakdown of ingested food
3) Chemical breakdown of materials using acid and enzymes
Small Intestine
-Digestion and absorption of water, organic substrates, vitamins and nutrients

-Chemical digestion is completed and the products of digestion are absorbed

-Exocrine organ, producing digestive enzymes and buffers

-Exocrine cells secrete buffers and digestive enzymes

-Endocrine cells secrete hormones

-Pancreatic duct delivers secretions to the duodenum

Secretion of bile and storage of nutrients

Functions include:

1) Metabolic regulation

Liver cells remove nutrients or toxins from blood before it reaches circulation

Liver removes and stores nutrients

2) Hematological regulation

Remove circulating hormones

Liver absorbs and breaks down antibodies, releasing amino acids

Toxins are broken down or excreted into bile

3) Bile production
Storage and concentration of bile
Large Intestine
begins at the end of the ileum and ends at the anus

Functions include:

1) Dehydration and compaction of indigestible materials are removed

2) Absorption of vitamins and the storage of fecal materials

3) Prepare fecal materials for discharge from the body

The digestive system breaks down food which gets burned up by your metabolism. And The Excretory system helps get rid of all the liquids.

The digestive system provides the energy and nutrition that the endocrine system uses and regulates.

The endocrine system in turn regulates the digestive system by producing hormones such as insulin that help metabolize foods and nutrients.

The respiratory system helps the digestive system by giving oxygen to the digestive system.

What causes Appendicitis?
The appendix is a narrow, hollow tube that branches off the large intestine and during the first few years of life it functions as a part of the immune system. after this period the appendix does not seem to serve any purpose, but if become infected and untreated it can burst, causing more infection and even death.
What is Appendicitis?
Appendicitis is an irritation, inflammation, and infection of the appendix.
Appendicitis occurs when the appendix becomes filled with mucus, stool, or parasites, causing the appendix to irritated and inflamed. The adequate blood flow that is necessary to keep that part of the body healthy is cut off as the swelling and irritation increase and as the blood is reduce the appendix starts to die.

perforation occurs as holes develop in the walls of the appendix allowing the mucus, stool and other elements to escape through and get inside the abdomen.
What are the symptoms?
The most common symptoms of appendicitis are:
1)Pain in the abdomen:
lower right-hand side
might increase as time passes
may be worse if perform any kind of movement
may spread throughout the abdomen if the appendix ruptures.
2)Nausea and vomiting
3)loss of appetite
4)fever and chills
7)abdominal swelling
A persons experiencing the symptoms of appendicitis should avoid taking pain medication, as this can mask other symptoms the doctor needs to be aware of. in addition they should not take medication, such as laxatives or enemas to relieve constipation, as these medications and procedures can cause the appendix to burst
GERD & Barrett's Esophagus
Barrett's esophagus is a disorder in which the lining of the esophagus, is damaged by stomach acid and changed to a lining similar to that of the stomach. this can increase the risk of cancer.
Barrett's esophagus is a serious complication of GERD.
When you swallow food or liquid, it automatically passes through the esophagus, which is a hollow, muscular tube that carries food from your throat to your stomach. The lower esophageal sphincter (LES) is a ring of muscle at the end of the esophagus, where it joins the stomach. when LES is closed, it prevents the stomach contents from rising up into the esophagus.

The stomach produces acid in order to digest food, but it is also protected from the acid it produces, if the sphincter muscle doesn't closed well or is open, food, liquid and stomach acid can flow backward into the esophagus. this is known as reflux or Gastroesophageal reflux.
heartburn pain
Difficulty in swallowing
Blood in vomit or stool
chronic cough
The symptoms of Barrett's esophagus are related to those of GERD. which are:

Indigestion is a painful or burning feeling in the upper abdomen and is usually followed by nausea, bloating, a feeling of fullness, and sometimes vomiting.
Some causes of indigestion may include the following:
Stomach or duodenal ulcers
eating too much
eating too quickly
eating high-fat foods
eating during stressful situations.
Stomach irritation (gastritis)
Anxiety or depression
Medications that irritate the stomach lining
Drinking too much alcohol
• Pain and discomfort in the upper abdomen
• Loud intestinal sounds
• Nausea
• Constipation
• Poor appetite
• Diarrhea
Lactose Intolerance
Lactose a sugar present in milk and milk products. It is a disaccharide (A sugar, carbohydrate, composed of two monosaccharides) containing glucose and galactose units.
Lactose intolerance is a condition caused by a lack of an enzyme called lactase, which causes the body to be unable to digest lactose.

Lactase is normally produced by cells lining the small intestine, where it breaks down lactose into a simple form of sugar that can be absorbed by the blood. A lack of lactase can cause uncomfortable symptoms for some people. Those who exhibit symptoms are said to be lactose intolerant.

Digestive diseases or injuries to the small intestine can reduce the amount of enzymes produced.
Abdominal pain
When lactose moves through the large intestine(colon) without being properly digested, it can cause uncomfortable symptoms such as pain, and bloating.
Some people who have lactose intolerance cannot digest any milk products. Others can eat or drink small amounts of milk products or certain types of milk products without problems.
A big challenge for people who are lactose-intolerant is learning how to eat to avoid discomfort and to get enough calcium.
Celiac disease
Celiac disease is a digestive disease that damages the small intestine because of a sensitivity to gluten, which is found in wheat, rye, barley, and oats. This hereditary disorder interferes with the absorption of nutrients from food.
When a person with celiac disease eat foods containing gluten, their immune system responds by damaging the small intestine lining, this causes inflammation in the small intestine and damages tiny hair-like structures, called villi, which line the small intestine and enable the absorption of nutrients from food into the bloodstream. Without these villi, malnutrition occurs, regardless of how much food a person consumes.
• Chronic diarrhea or constipation
• Weight loss
• Abdominal pain and bloating
• Gas
• Pale
• Anemia
• Muscle cramps and/or bone pain
• Pain in the joints
• Delayed growth
• Painful skin rash
• Missed menstrual periods (which is linked to excessive weight loss)
• Tooth discoloration
Osteoporosis, a disease that weakens bones and leads to fractures. due to lack of calcium and vitamin D.
Miscarriage or infertility.
Birth defects
Growth problems in children because they don't absorb enough nutrients.
Celiac disease can leave a person susceptible to other health problems, including:
In order to treat appendicitis surgery called appendectomy is required which is the removal of the appendix. Many doctors try to remove the appendix as a safety caution since it might rupture.
First taking antibiotics before the appendectomy
Barrett’s Esophagus
Treatment is to control acid reflux since frequent acid reflux can eventually cause Barrett’s disease. Medications and a change in diet such as eating non fatty foods, chocolate, caffeine, spicy foods, alcoholic drinks, tobacco, don’t lie down right after eating, and take medicine with plenty of water.

Taking medication such antacids which are to neutralize the stomach, proton pump inhibitors which reduce the production of stomach acid, H2 blockers which lessen the release of stomach acid. Certain surgeries if you see abnormal tissue.

“Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses a laser that's inserted into the esophagus with the endoscope to kill abnormal cells in the lining without damaging normal tissue. Before the procedure, the patient takes a drug known as Photofrin, which causes cells to become light-sensitive.

Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) lifts the abnormal lining and cuts it off the wall of the esophagus before it's removed through the endoscope. The goal is to remove any precancerous or cancer cells contained in the lining. If cancer cells are present, an ultrasound is done first to be sure the cancer hasn't moved deeper into the esophagus walls.

Surgery to remove most of the esophagus is an option in cases where severe precancer (dysplasia) or cancer has been diagnosed. The earlier the surgery is done following the diagnosis, the better the chance for the cure.”
Try to avoid eating spicy foods, drinking fluids right after a meal, drinking alcoholic beverages, and try not to chew with mouth open , eating smaller potions.
Lactose Intolerance
Just avoid dairy products also eating small portions of dairy foods can be a treatment in Lactose Intolerance.
Celiac Disease
The only option for treatment is to have a gluten-free –diet. Avoiding wheat, barley, and not drinking beers unless there gluten free. Having a registered dietician can help with the transitioning to a gluten – free- diet.
Produce the saliva

• Used to moisten your mouth

• Initiate digestion

• Stimulates taste buds
The Esophagus
The esophagus is a 25-cm long muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach.

passes through an opening in the diaphragm, called the esophageal hiatus

it then empties into the stomach

Upper and lower esophageal sphincters control the movement of food into and out of the esophagus.

the cardiac sphincter and resides at the esophagogastric junction.
The Stomach
The intestines are a long, continuous tube’s running from the stomach to the anus.
The Small Intestine
Large Intestine
- about 20 feet long and about an inch in diameter.

Its job is to absorb most of the nutrients from what we eat and drink.
Velvety tissue lines the small intestine
It is divided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.
- In an average adult, the large intestine is about 1.5m long and 5cm wide.

It consists of the Cesium appendix, colon and rectum.

The Liver, the Gallbladder, and the Pancreas
The liver is located in the upper right-hand portion of the abdominal cavity, beneath the diaphragm and on top of the stomach, right kidney, and intestines.
The liver weighs 3 pounds
produces a digestive fluid called bile, which helps with fat digestion, absorption and much more.
The Gallbladder
The gallbladder is a small pouch that sits just under the liver.

The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver.
The Pancreas
The pancreas is about 17.8 cm in length and 3.8 cm wide. It is under the stomach and it is attached to the small intestine.

Pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that passes to the small intestine.
These enzymes help to breakdown carbohydrates, protein, and fat further.
The Rectum and the Anus
The part of the digestive system in which feces accumulate before being released from the body.

The rectum extends 13 to 15 cm (5 to 6 inches) to the anus.

A muscular sheet called the pelvic diaphragm runs perpendicular to the juncture of the rectum and anal canal.

This creates a joining point between the two segments of the large intestine.
is a canal at the end of the digestive tract through which feces is expelled.

It is around five inches long and it is an extension of the rectum.

It is only open during the expulsion of feces because it is

Usually kept closed by sphincter muscles, which can be relaxed at will.
Works Cited
Martini, Frederic and Judi Nath. Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology. San Francisco,

CA: Martini, 2009. Print.
Taylor, Tim. Inner Body. HOWTOMEDIA, INC. Purdue U, Web. n.d.

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