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Unit III - The New Imperialism

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Rob Murano

on 1 December 2016

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Transcript of Unit III - The New Imperialism

I. Building Overseas Empires

A. Motives for Imperialism
Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country
Desire for resources
Seeking new markets
Military bases
Spread religion
Social Darwinism
B. Spread of Imperialism
Many countries outside Europe were weak
Europeans had advanced tech (I.R.)
Some countries fought back through Nationalist revolts
C. Forms of Imperial Rule
Direct Rule
- Sending leaders to the colony
Indirect Rule
- Used local rulers
Protectorate
- local rulers left in place, followed advice of European advisors
Sphere of Influence
- an area inside a country where a foreign country could trade
UNIT III

THE NEW IMPERIALISM

1900s

II. The Partition of Africa

A. Africa in the 1800s
Very diverse people, languages, culture, religion
North Africa was controlled by the Ottomans
East Africa influenced by Islamic religion
Southern Africa - British pushed Boers (Dutch farmers) north, Boers pushed Zulu, and more conflicts!!!
Devastated by slave trade.......why?
III. European Claims in Muslim Regions

A. Ferment in the Muslim World
(Find and list three examples of how the Muslim world was weakening)
B. Challenges to the Ottoman Empire
(Find and list three results of the fall
of the Ottoman empire)
C. Efforts at Reform
(List three positive changes for the Ottoman Empire)
(Describe the Armenian Genocide in two sentences)
D. Egypt Seeks to Modernize
(Who was Muhammad Ali?)
(Why was the Suez Canal important?)
E. Iran and the Western Powers
(Why did countries want Iran?)
(How did Britain and Russia settle their differences in
Iran?

IV. The British Take Over India

A. East India Company and Rebellion
1600s - British East India Company won trading rights in India
Main goal:
MAKE MONEY!
Diverse Indian population (Hindus and Muslims)
British turned Indians upon each other
Sepoys - Indian soldiers forced to fight for the British
Sepoy Rebellion - 1857 - Rifle cartridges lined in beef and pork fat
Violated restrictions of Hinduism and Islam
Indian soldiers rebelled
India officially became a British colony
Mistrust on both sides
V. China and the New Imperialism
VI. Japan Modernizes
VII. Imperialism in Southeast Asia and The Pacific
VIII. Economic Imperialism in Latin America
B. European Contact Increases
Most early exploration was on the coast
Technology made it possible to explore the central part of Africa
Catholic and Protestant missionaries
Paternalistic view of Africa
Dr. David Livingstone and Henry Stanley in central Africa
C. A Scramble for Colonies
Berlin Conference - 1884 - Meeting of European countries to divide the African continent..NO AFRICANS INVITED!
Redrew map of Africa, no regard for people already there
Exploitation of people and resources
Boer War 1899-1902 - British vs. Boers - South Africa
D. Africans Resist Imperialism
Many African countries tried to fight against Imperialism
European countries had advanced TECHNOLOGY
Ethiopia remained independent and more advanced than many other African countries
B. Impact of Colonial Rule
British Raj
- name for British rule in India
Viceroy - British representative who ruled "for" the queen
British felt they were helping India modernize
Technology and culture
India was a valuable
market
and source of
raw materials
Improved transportation, education, legal system...why?
C. Indian Nationalism Grows
Growth of western-educated Indians
Increased Indian nationalism....anti-British
1885 - Indian National Congress (Congress Party)
Goal: Greater democracy and self rule
1906 - Muslim League
Goal: Independent Muslim state
A. Trade in China

China limited trade with the west –
selling silk, porcelain, and tea in exchange for gold and silver
China had a positive Balance of Trade -
exporting more than they were importing
Westerners had a Trade Deficit
they bought more than they sold to the Chinese
Two factors changed China’s isolationism policy:
China was weak
Europeans needed markets and resources
B. The Opium War

Britain sold opium from India to China for tea
Chinese soon became addicted to opium and outlawed it.
Britain felt that they had the right to free trade.
In 1839, British and Chinese warships attacked each other.
Because of the Industrial Revolution, Britain was more powerful and defeated the Chinese
Britain then made China sign treaties that forced the Chinese to give up rights to the western powers.
Treaty of Nanjing
Britain also gained Hong Kong.
C. The Taiping Rebellion
Peasants revolted because of taxes, corruption, and bribery.
Taiping rebels won large sections of China and ruled for 14 years
Between 20 and 30 million were killed during this rebellion
D. Boxer Rebellion
Secret society of the Righteous Harmonious Hand called “Boxers” wanted to push out the “foreign devils”
Attacked foreign communities in China
Western powers and Japan organized a force to crush the rebellion
Similar to the Sepoy Rebellion
A. Japan had remained isolated
1853 -
Commodore Perry
sailed to Japan and
demanded that Japan open its ports to trade
United States soon won exclusive trading rights in Japan
Japan soon became upset with the foreigners inside its borders
B. Meiji Restoration
1868 – 1912,
Meiji means “Enlightened Rule”
Strengthen Japan against the West

“A rich country, a strong military”
Studied western culture
Traveled to study governments, economies and technology
C. Meiji Reforms
Build a modern economy
Set up a banking system
(
Zaibatsu

powerful banking families
)
Railroads
Postal system
Replace old feudal system
All citizens equal
Established a
Diet
(legislature)
Established separate departments to control finance, army and military
A. Europeans Colonize Southeast Asia
Between India and China
Dutch East India Company
– coffee, indigo, spices
1860s – French Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia)
1886 – British took Burma

B. The United States and the Philippines
1800s –
Philippines not happy with Spanish rule
1898 –
Spanish American war – Spain vs. USA
Cuba wanted independence from Spain
US fleet destroyed Spanish fleet in the Philippines
After the war –
US “bought” Philippines for $20 mil

A. Political Problems
After Bolivar, 20 new Latin American countries
Many dictatorships rose in the 1800s
Not much change from social structure of the Spanish
Church owned lots of land
Growth of regionalism – regional loyalties
(like Italy before unification)
B. Economic Dependence
Economically dependent on Spain and Portugal
Relied on the Spain and Portugal for trade!
Very little free trade
European countries profited from trade in Latin America
Little economic growth
C. The Influence of the United States
1823 –
Monroe Doctrine – Stated that the USA would view further colonization in the Americas as an act of war and retaliate
1848 – USA goes to war with Mexico
USA gained land and influence in Latin America
Platt Amendment – 1901 – US naval bases in Cuba
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