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Psychology AS Memory Lesson 2

Models of Memory
by

Amanda Lane

on 11 September 2014

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Transcript of Psychology AS Memory Lesson 2

PSYA1 - MEMORY
Models of memory
Lesson Objective:
To consolidate our understanding of different types of memory and apply it to different models of memory such as the Multi-store memory and working memory models.
Over the last few lessons we have looks at different types of memory
What are they called?
Using your... MEMORY... draw & complete the table outlining the differences between STM & LTM memory!
STM
LTM
Capacity
Duration
Encoding
Models of Memory
A model of memory is a way of explaining how the process works.
Multi-store model (Atkinson & Shiffrin 1968)
This model is based on the 'Information processing' approach which characterises memory as a flow of information through a system through a series of stages.
Stimuli
Sensory Memory
Stores uncoded sensory information
Information can be lost through DECAY
Recoding Process
Short-term memory
Stores acoustic or visual information for several seconds
Information can be lost through decay or DISPLACEMENT after 30 seconds
Rehearsal Transfer
LTM
Retrieval
Stores mainly semantic information for unlimited periods
Information can be lost through decay, RETRIEVAL FAILURE or INTERFERENCE
Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) Multi-store memory model
Decay
Displacement
Retrieval failure
Interference
Memories fade away with time if attention is not paid to it.
Information within the STM is pushed out to make room for new incoming information
Match the key term with the correct definition!
The process where memories are obscured by other information
Retrieval cue
A prompt that helps us to recall information
Information stored cannot be accessed because there is no suitable retrieval cue.
The 3 memory stores
How information is transferred from one stage to the next .
How information can be lost
Outline the key features of the mutli-store memory model
(6 marks)
In order to attain maximum marks your answer needs to include the following information:
Strengths and weaknesses of the multi-store memory model
Strengths!
Case studies prove that there is a distinction between STM & LTM in terms of Capacity, duration & encoding
The case study of Clive Wearing
Suffers from a particularly profound case of amnesia
Clive has been left with severe brain damage after contacting a viral infection.
As well as not being able to recall most of his memories he is unable to create new ones.
Watch the video and make notes on Clive and how his profound memory loss impacts on his life
How does Clive's case support the Multi-store memory model?
There are several theories as to why Clive cannot remember thing that happened 30 seconds ago....
His sensory stimulus never registers
His STM faded too quickly
LTM cannot be retrieved
So how does the curious case of Clive support the Multi-store memory model?
Working in pairs can you come up with as many bullet points to answer this question
Question time!
How much do you remember about the picture at the beginning of the lesson!
Weaknesses of the multi-store memory model
People use different strategies to remember
To simplistic
People can remember without conscious rehearsal
The working memory model!
The working memory model (Baddeley & Hitch 1974)
The WMM looks at the idea that the STM consists of multi-component, flexible systems that process and store information for short periods of time.
It also shows that people have the ability to multi-task... Different components that work independently of each other.
Lets test out the theory!
In pairs, one of you needs to construct a random 6 digit number. Read out the number to your partner and then read out the list of verbal reasoning questions. Your partner needs to answer true or false. Ask your partner to recall the 6 digit number.
Are they able to?
Central executive
Controls attention & controls the subsidiary systems
Visuo - spatial scratch pad
Storage for spatial and visual information
The 'inner eye'
Episodic Buffer
Temporary storage system that allows information from the subsidiary systems to be combined with information from LTM
Phonological Loop
Controls the verbal rehearsal system - the 'inner voice'
Phonological store for acoustically coded information - the 'inner ear'
Visual
Episodic
Language
Long-term memory
The central executive
Involved in problem solving and decision making
Planning, synthesising information
Flexible as it can process information from all modes
Limited in capacity
The phonological loop
Stores speech based sounds
Contains 2 different stores - phonological store (inner ear) and the articulatory control system (inner voice)
The visuo-spatial scratch pad
The inner eye
Responsible for mental images
Visual and spacial stores act independently and have limited capacity
Episodic Buffer
Capable of integrating information from different sources in to episodes
limited capacity
Allows information already present in the LTM to associate with the working memory to make sense of new scenarios
For example....
How many windows are in your house?
Most of you will have either visually imagine the outside of your house or will perform a walk through.... either way you have just accessed your
Visuo - spatial scratch pad
Tallying up the windows will have involved the use of the
Phonological loop
The whole exercise would have been controlled by the
Central executive
As it allocated the task to the correct components and recognised that a conclusion had been reached
Strengths of the WMM
Explains how we can store information whilst actively process it (mental arithmetic)
Evidence supports the existence of the phonological loop
Evidence supports the existence of the visual-spacial scratch pad - its is hard to carry out 2 visual tasks at the same time than a visual and verbal task. This proves the limit capacity of the VSSP.
Weaknesses of the WMM
There is not much research into the most important component, the central executive. No one knows its exact capacity.
Outline and evaluate the key features of the working memory model
(8 marks)
Psychology in action!
How to improve your memory!
P
Q
R
S
Skim read your notes, paying particular attention to the subheadings. Read summaries in your text book.
Your brain starts to organise the info!
The PQRST method
Question the headings.... 'What does STM mean?'
Elaboration is part of the encoding process
Read your notes to ensure you have the correct understanding. Highlight key features.
This process lays down your retrieval ques
Read out allow the key points to what you have just read. This will allow you to recognise gaps in your understanding as well as allowing your memory to organise information better.
T
Test what you know by retrieval... Try linking topics together. Test yourself at regular intervals over periods of time
PREVIEW
QUESTION
READ
SELF RECITATION
TEST
PROJECT TIME!
Put your knowledge and skills to the test
Your task is to construct a poster on one of the topics below:
Types of memory
Capacity, Duration, Encoding
Multi-store memory model
Working memory model
You will need to include A01 (Knowledge and Understanding) and A02 (analysis and evaluation)
Full transcript