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Is Stereotyping Inevitable?
Transcript of Is Stereotyping Inevitable?
The act: we infer that a person has a whole range of characteristics and abilities that we assume all members of that group have
Have you ever been on the receiving end?
Have you ever stereotyped? Stereotyping? "Reducing Stereotyping Through Mindfulness: Effects on Automatic Stereotype-Activated Behaviors" The Power of Suggestion Definition: Is Stereotyping Inevitable?? Yea or Nae? YES NO Inevitable?? Definition: incapable of being avoided or evaded Grace Gravito, Cindy Liberal, Roxanna, Jessica, Daniel Usma Research Tells Us... Mindfulness: a technique in which a person becomes aware of his/ her thoughts and actions in the present moment, without placing judgment, value, applying labels, or categorizing.
Condition 1: High mindfulness (sorting by four self-generated categories)
Condition 2: Moderate Mindfulness (sorting by four assigned categories)
Condition 3: Low mindfulness (sorting by a single assigned category- gender)
Condition 4: Low mindfulness (sorting by a single assigned category- age) Cognitive Roots of Stereotyping Henri Tajefil
Social Identity is a person's sense of who they are based on their group memberships
The groups to which people belong to are an important source of pride and self-esteem
In order to increase our self image, we increase the status of the group to which we belong..thus creating the "in group" & "out group" Social Identity Theory Attitudes are said to consist of three components
- behavioral Cognitive processes naturally involve categorizations: tendency to group things together
- there is an over exaggeration of differences (out-group) and similarities (in-group) Uhlmann, E. L., & Nosek, B. A. (2012). My culture made me do it: Lay theories of responsibility for automatic prejudice. Social Psychology, 43, 108-113. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1864-9335/a000089 Psychological process by which one person guides the thoughts, feelings, or behavior of another Participants were more likely to agree that they would engage in racially biased responses than they should.
A majority of participants self-reported experiencing spontaneous negative feelings, thoughts, and reactions toward minorities which they found difficult to prevent. Results show that the greater the amount of active categorization that the participants engaged in (the greater their mindfulness), the less likely the automatically activated stereotype behavior (slowed walking), would be, thus leading to faster walking speed.
Increasing mindfulness can act directly on behavior, potentially providing a natural interruption in the cycle of stereotyped behavior There's no proof that says that stereotyping will always exist. Furthermore, the notion that it will always exist is a blatant, self-fulfilling prophecy. As long as somebody can learn and be exposed to other people and other viewpoints, there exists the possibility of getting away from prejudices and away from stereotypes. Introduction: "Neural correlates of stereotype application." Mitchell, J., Ames,D., Jenkins, A., (2008) Results showed that participants applied stereotype on 76.6% of stereotypical trials (ex: judging that a male target would be likely to enjoy football, or would be very unlikely to enjoy shopping),while for non stereotypical items, stereotype was 47.3 %.
This indicated that although stereotyping was still done, it was decreased when not primed to stereotypical items. The color of children's gender stereotypes Karniol, R. (2011) The purpose of this study was to examine gender stereotypes in children's coloring choices in coloring books by making 3rd graders choose between pink or blue booklets versus illustration covers (batman vs. Bratz). VS. Blue Pink Results showed that majority of boys picked the pink coloring book with Batman on the cover, and majority of girls choose the blue coloring book with Bratz on the cover. “A long tradition has conceived of stereotyping and prejudice as an automatic and inevitable consequence of categorization…Specifically, people’s memberships in fundamental categories such as age, gender, and race seem to be attended to automatically” (Lepore & Brown, 1997, p. 275) Maja Djikic, Ellen J. Langer, Sarah Fulton Stapleton (2008) HEURISTICS AND BIASES IN THE BRAIN: DUAL NEURAL PATHWAYS FOR DECISION MAKING
By: Wim De Neys and Vinod Goel -The observation of men in the role of breadwinner leads both women and men to see men as competitive
- The observation of women in the role of child bearer leads both women and men to
see women as nurturing -People tend to observe members of their own groups just as they observe members of out-groups and thats how they develop their stereotypes. -Words automatically create stereotypes:
-black versus white
- tall versus short
- fat versus thin.
-Words automatically divide and classify our
-Words automatically simplify so we can understand and communicate. -Hamilton and Sherman (1994)
concluded that a stereotype is a
cognitive structure containing our
knowledge, belief and expectations
of, in this instance, a social group. Inevitable?
Turner, P., & Turner, S. (2011). Is stereotyping inevitable when designing with personas?
Design Studies, 32(1), 30-44. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.destud.2010.06.002 Is stereotyping inevitable when designing
with personas? Lambert, A. J., Payne, B. K., Jacoby, L. L., Shaffer, L. M., Chasteen, A. L., & Khan, S. R. (2003). Stereotypes as dominant responses: On the "social facilitation" of prejudice in anticipated public contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 277-295. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1997 Proposed: ...facial expressions stereotypic of a particular social category will be used as cues for assigning a target to that category
....extent to which stereotypes will
affect categorization in ambiguous situations will be moderated by the perceiver’s level of prejudice
Study 1: the relationship between prejudice and
categorization was stronger for angry than for happy faces
Study 2: revealed that implicit-prejudice scores were positively related to categorization of target faces as African American when the faces were angry De Neys, W., & Goel, V. (in press). Heuristics and biases in the brain: Dual neural pathways for decision making. In O. Vartanian & D. R. Mandel (Eds.), Neuroscience of Decision Making. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. the study concluded that that "the dual neural systems that have been previously found to underlie deductive reasoning also underwrite decision making. Heuristic thinking that was based on a stereotypical description activated the left lateral temporal lobe whereas the bilateral superior parietal lobe was activated when people reasoned analytically."
The study is telling us that making stereotypical decision, is a natural process that is supported by certain type of brain activity, thus making it unavoidable.
DANIEL, AT WHAT TIME WILL YOU MEET US TODAY ? WE NEED TO PRESENT AT 12:30 The role of stereotypes in decision-making processes
By: Galen V. Bodenhausen "The 1st step in combating stereotypes is thus to create awareness about the dangers that they pose for decision making. We have to be willing to acknowledge the possibility that we might be prone to stereotypic biases and become vigilant for noticing them, or there's no hope of addressing the problem." Bodenhausen, G. V. (2005). The role of stereotypes in decision-making processes. Medical Decision Making, 25(1), 112-118. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0272989X04273800 The article stated that not all type of stereotyping is wrong, and that the shortcuts that we create on our minds and the stereotypes we create can sometimes save lives, as is when stereotyping demographics and treating patients of said demographics.