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Consciousness - Chapter 4

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Leah Winger

on 26 April 2016

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Transcript of Consciousness - Chapter 4

Chapter 4
Consciousness
Sleep
Dreams
Hypnosis
Psychoactive Drugs
Application
Consciousness
: a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment

Waking Consciousness:
state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and the person feels alert

Altered State of Consciousness:
state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness


Necessity of Sleep
Stages of Sleep
Brain Wave Patterns
Sleep is a
circadian rhythm
, lasting 24 hours, and is a product of the activity of the
hypothalamus
, the hormone
melatonin
, the neurotransmitter
serotonin
, and
body temperature
.



Hypothalamus
tells the
pineal gland
to secrete melatonin. Melatonin makes a person feel sleepy


The average amount of sleep needed by most adults is about 7 to 9 hours within each 24-hour period.


Microsleeps
: brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds
Sleep deprivation
: any significant loss of sleep
results in irritability and problems with concentration

Theories
Adaptive theory
: Animals and Humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active.

Restorative theory
: Sleep is necessary in order to replenish chemicals and repairs cellular damage
Rapid eye movement (REM)
: stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream (90% of the time)




Stage 1
sleep is light sleep.
Hypnagogic images
or
hypnic jerk

Stage 2
sleep is indicated by the presence of sleep spindles, bursts of activity on the EEG. Temperature, breathing, and heart rate decrease

Stage 3
is highlighted by the first appearance of delta waves, the slowest and largest waves. Hard to wake up.

Stage 4
is predominantly delta waves, and the body is at its lowest level of functioning. Hard to wake up


REM
Electroencephalograph (EEG):
allows scientists to see the brain wave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered

Beta Waves
(smaller/faster): person is wide awake and mentally active
Alpha Waves
(larger/slower): brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep
Theta Waves
: brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep
Delta Waves
: long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep
NREM (non-REM) sleep
: any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM
REM sleep occurs four or five times a night, replacing Stage 1 after a full cycle through Stages 1 through 4 and then back to Stage 1. It is accompanied by paralysis of the voluntary muscles but rapid movement of the eyes.
Figure 4.3 A Typical Night’s SleepThe graph shows the typical progression through the night of Stages N1–N3 and REM sleep. The REM periods occur about every 90 minutes throughout the night (based on Dement, 1974).

Sleep Disorders
Nightmares:
bad dreams occurring during REM sleep

REM behavior disorder:
mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails allows the person to thrash around, or even get up and act out nightmares

Sleepwalking
(somnambulism): episode of moving around or walking around in one’s sleep occurs in deep sleep (stage 4). More common among children than adults

Night terrors:
the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep does not wake fully. It is a relatively rare disorder

Sleepwalking as a defense?
Kenneth Parks Case
Scott Falater Case
Brian Thomas Case
Answer the questions on page 147
Problems During Sleep
Insomnia
: Inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get good quality sleep

Narcolepsy
: Person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning

Sleep Apnea
: Person stops breathing for half a minute or more
Manifest content
of a dream is the actual dream and its events.
Latent content
of a dream is the symbolic content, according to Freud.

Activation-synthesis hypothesis
: dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the brain stem’s activation of cortical cells during REM sleep periods

Without outside sensory information to explain the activation of the brain cells in the cortex by the pons area, the association areas of the cortex synthesize a story, or dream, to explain that activation in the activation-synthesis hypothesis.

A revision of activation-synthesis theory, the activation-information mode model (AIM) states that information experienced during waking hours can influence the synthesis of dreams.


Hypnosis: state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion

Four elements of hypnosis:
1. Hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said
2. Person is told to relax and feel tired
3. Hypnotist tells the person to “let go” and accept suggestions easily
4. Person is told to use vivid imagination
Hypnotic susceptibility: degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject

Hypnosis as dissociation
: hypnosis works only in a person’s immediate consciousness, while a hidden “observer” remained aware of all that was going on

Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis
: people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation

drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory

Physical Dependence
Drug tolerance
occurs as the user’s body becomes conditioned to the level of the drug. After a time, the user must take more and more of the drug to get the same effect.


Drugs that are physically addictive cause the user’s body to crave the drug. When deprived of the drug, the user will go through
physical withdrawal
(physical symptoms resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems
can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure)

In
psychological dependence
, the user believes that he or she needs the drug to function well and maintain a sense of well-being. Any drug can produce psychological dependence.


3 Major Categories
Stimulants
Hallucinogens
Depressants
Stimulants
These substances speed up the functions of the body
increase feelings of alertness
high energy levels
Feelings of euphoria
Feelings of power or invulnerability at higher doses
high potential for addiction
Psychogenic Drugs
drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication

Hallucinogens
: drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality
LSD
(lysergic acid diethylamide): powerful synthetic hallucinogen
PCP
: synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects
MDMA
(Ecstasy or X): designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects
Stimulatory hallucinogenics
: drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects


Barbiturates
, also known as major tranquilizers, have a sedative effect and are used as sleeping pills.

The minor tranquilizers are benzodiazepines such as Valium or Xanax.

Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused depressant. Alcohol can interact with other depressants. Excessive use of alcohol can lead to alcoholism, health problems, loss of control, and death.





opium
: substance made from the opium poppy and from which all narcotic drugs are derived

morphine
: narcotic drug derived from opium; used to treat severe pain

heroin
: narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive

Narcotics
opium-related drugs
suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins.
Hypnogogic hallucination
is a hallucination that can occur just as a person is entering N1 sleep
Hypnopompic hallucination
is a

hallucination that happens just as a person is in the between-state of being in REM sleep (in which the voluntary muscles are paralyzed) and not yet fully awake

tiny section of the brain that influences the glandular system
suprachiasmatic nucleus
(deep within the hypothalamus. The internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep)
drugs that are synthesized (made in labs) rather than found in nature
amphetamines
natural drug; produces euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure
cocaine
active ingredient in tobacco
nicotine
the stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate, and even many over-the-counter drugs
caffeine
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