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Consciousness - Chapter 4
Transcript of Consciousness - Chapter 4
: a person’s awareness of everything that is going on around him or her at any given moment
state in which thoughts, feelings, and sensations are clear and organized, and the person feels alert
Altered State of Consciousness:
state in which there is a shift in the quality or pattern of mental activity as compared to waking consciousness
Necessity of Sleep
Stages of Sleep
Brain Wave Patterns
Sleep is a
, lasting 24 hours, and is a product of the activity of the
, the hormone
, the neurotransmitter
to secrete melatonin. Melatonin makes a person feel sleepy
The average amount of sleep needed by most adults is about 7 to 9 hours within each 24-hour period.
: brief sidesteps into sleep lasting only a few seconds
: any significant loss of sleep
results in irritability and problems with concentration
: Animals and Humans evolved sleep patterns to avoid predators by sleeping when predators are most active.
: Sleep is necessary in order to replenish chemicals and repairs cellular damage
Rapid eye movement (REM)
: stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream (90% of the time)
sleep is light sleep.
sleep is indicated by the presence of sleep spindles, bursts of activity on the EEG. Temperature, breathing, and heart rate decrease
is highlighted by the first appearance of delta waves, the slowest and largest waves. Hard to wake up.
is predominantly delta waves, and the body is at its lowest level of functioning. Hard to wake up
allows scientists to see the brain wave activity as a person passes through the various stages of sleep and to determine what type of sleep the person has entered
(smaller/faster): person is wide awake and mentally active
(larger/slower): brain waves that indicate a state of relaxation or light sleep
: brain waves indicating the early stages of sleep
: long, slow waves that indicate the deepest stage of sleep
NREM (non-REM) sleep
: any of the stages of sleep that do not include REM
REM sleep occurs four or five times a night, replacing Stage 1 after a full cycle through Stages 1 through 4 and then back to Stage 1. It is accompanied by paralysis of the voluntary muscles but rapid movement of the eyes.
Figure 4.3 A Typical Night’s SleepThe graph shows the typical progression through the night of Stages N1–N3 and REM sleep. The REM periods occur about every 90 minutes throughout the night (based on Dement, 1974).
bad dreams occurring during REM sleep
REM behavior disorder:
mechanism that blocks the movement of the voluntary muscles fails allows the person to thrash around, or even get up and act out nightmares
(somnambulism): episode of moving around or walking around in one’s sleep occurs in deep sleep (stage 4). More common among children than adults
the person experiences extreme fear and screams or runs around during deep sleep does not wake fully. It is a relatively rare disorder
Sleepwalking as a defense?
Kenneth Parks Case
Scott Falater Case
Brian Thomas Case
Answer the questions on page 147
Problems During Sleep
: Inability to get to sleep, stay asleep, or get good quality sleep
: Person falls immediately into REM sleep during the day without warning
: Person stops breathing for half a minute or more
of a dream is the actual dream and its events.
of a dream is the symbolic content, according to Freud.
: dreams are created by the higher centers of the cortex to explain the brain stem’s activation of cortical cells during REM sleep periods
Without outside sensory information to explain the activation of the brain cells in the cortex by the pons area, the association areas of the cortex synthesize a story, or dream, to explain that activation in the activation-synthesis hypothesis.
A revision of activation-synthesis theory, the activation-information mode model (AIM) states that information experienced during waking hours can influence the synthesis of dreams.
Hypnosis: state of consciousness in which the person is especially susceptible to suggestion
Four elements of hypnosis:
1. Hypnotist tells the person to focus on what is being said
2. Person is told to relax and feel tired
3. Hypnotist tells the person to “let go” and accept suggestions easily
4. Person is told to use vivid imagination
Hypnotic susceptibility: degree to which a person is a good hypnotic subject
Hypnosis as dissociation
: hypnosis works only in a person’s immediate consciousness, while a hidden “observer” remained aware of all that was going on
Social-cognitive theory of hypnosis
: people who are hypnotized are not in an altered state, but are merely playing the role expected of them in the situation
drugs that alter thinking, perception, and memory
occurs as the user’s body becomes conditioned to the level of the drug. After a time, the user must take more and more of the drug to get the same effect.
Drugs that are physically addictive cause the user’s body to crave the drug. When deprived of the drug, the user will go through
(physical symptoms resulting from a lack of an addictive drug in the body systems
can include nausea, pain, tremors, crankiness, and high blood pressure)
, the user believes that he or she needs the drug to function well and maintain a sense of well-being. Any drug can produce psychological dependence.
3 Major Categories
These substances speed up the functions of the body
increase feelings of alertness
high energy levels
Feelings of euphoria
Feelings of power or invulnerability at higher doses
high potential for addiction
drugs including hallucinogens and marijuana that produce hallucinations or increased feelings of relaxation and intoxication
: drugs that cause false sensory messages, altering the perception of reality
(lysergic acid diethylamide): powerful synthetic hallucinogen
: synthesized drug now used as an animal tranquilizer that can cause stimulant, depressant, narcotic, or hallucinogenic effects
(Ecstasy or X): designer drug that can have both stimulant and hallucinatory effects
: drugs that produce a mixture of psychomotor stimulant and hallucinogenic effects
, also known as major tranquilizers, have a sedative effect and are used as sleeping pills.
The minor tranquilizers are benzodiazepines such as Valium or Xanax.
Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused depressant. Alcohol can interact with other depressants. Excessive use of alcohol can lead to alcoholism, health problems, loss of control, and death.
: substance made from the opium poppy and from which all narcotic drugs are derived
: narcotic drug derived from opium; used to treat severe pain
: narcotic drug derived from opium that is extremely addictive
suppress the sensation of pain by binding to and stimulating the nervous system’s natural receptor sites for endorphins.
is a hallucination that can occur just as a person is entering N1 sleep
hallucination that happens just as a person is in the between-state of being in REM sleep (in which the voluntary muscles are paralyzed) and not yet fully awake
tiny section of the brain that influences the glandular system
(deep within the hypothalamus. The internal clock that tells people when to wake up and when to fall asleep)
drugs that are synthesized (made in labs) rather than found in nature
natural drug; produces euphoria, energy, power, and pleasure
active ingredient in tobacco
the stimulant found in coffee, tea, most sodas, chocolate, and even many over-the-counter drugs