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Mendelian Genetics

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Miss Villanueva

on 13 December 2012

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Transcript of Mendelian Genetics

Long...long time ago... Genetics, in its untrained form, has been around for at least 10,000 years, since farmers started using their knowledge of inheritance to enhance crops and livestock through selective breeding. Gregor Mendel Mendelian Genetics Law of Segregation states that allele pairs separate or segregate during gamete formation, and randomly unite at fertilization. Law of Independent
Assortment Law of Dominance Some alleles are DOMINANT. Let's have a vocabulary quiz On 1822-1868, an Austrian monk who experimented with pea plants to determine how seven different, easily observed traits are inherited. This is a pedigree showing the inheritance of one of the best known genetic diseases, haemophilia, in the royal family. The inheritance of haemophilia is now well understood. Father of Genetics He was the first scientist to use the patterns of heredity. Important Terms to Remember: Punnett Squares: Monohybrid Cross Now we know a bit about how genes work, we need to know how they are inherited. Miss Villanueva GENETICS - branch of biology that studies heredity. HEREDITY - is the passing of traits from parents to offspring. P Generation - Parent Generation, first cross. F1 Generation - First Filial (Generation), offspring of the first cross. F2 Generation - Second Generation,
offspring of breeding two F1's ALLELES - different versions of a gene. GENE - is the basic unit of heredity
in a living organism. SOMATIC CELLS - another term for body cells. GAMETES - also known as sex cells If present, it will always be expressed.
Genotype is written in CAPITAL LETTER. Some allelles are RECESSIVE. Only expressed when dominant allele is not present.
Genotype is in written LOWER CASE LETTER. GENOTYPE - is the gene of an organism. PHENOTYPE- is how it looks or physical appearance. ZYGOTE - fertilized egg INHERITED CHARACTERISTICS - genetically determined traits. ACQUIRED CHARACTERISTICS - learned traits P= purple
p= white is a method to determine the probability of offspring types. shows the possible traits from one parent's genes and the other parent's genes. In pea plants, spherical seeds (S) are dominant to wrinkled seeds (s). In a genetic cross of two plants that are heterozygous for the seed shape trait, what fraction of the offspring should have the spherical seeds? Example:
Tall trait is dominant (when present, trait will always show itself)
Short trait is recessive (will only show itself when not masked by dominant trait)

Two traits in each offspring: one from female and one from male.
(T from one parent, t from other parent= Tt in offspring for height) During gamete formation, segregating pairs
of unit factors assort independently. For example, the assortment of yellow and green alleles
has no effect on the assortment of round and wrinkled alleles,
and vice versa. Which of the following is a possible abbreviation for a genotype?
B. Pp
C. Ty
D. fg What is the best way to determine the phenotype of the feathers on a bird?
A. analyze the bird's DNA (genes)
B. look at the bird's feathers
C. look at the bird's beak
d. examine the bird's droppings Which of the following pairs is not correct?
A. kk = hybrid
B. hybrid = heterozygous
C. heterozygous = Hh
D. homozygous = RR The genes present in an organism
represent the organism's __________.
A. genotype
B. phenotype
C. physical traits How many alleles for one trait are normally
found in the genotype of an organism?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4 Homo means same Zygous means offspring Homozygous = If two alleles are the SAME. Hetero means different Heterozygous - If two alleles are DIFFERENT.
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