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World War 2

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Lexi Koestner

on 17 November 2013

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Transcript of World War 2

Major Battles
Theaters of War
and War Heroes

Beginning of World War 2
V-E Day!
March 7th, 1945
Purpose is to celebrate the unconditional surrender of Germany
V-E Day is celebrated in America and Britain
photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli
World War 2
Who Started It?
World War 2
World History
Period 2
Toni Kelly
Lexi Koestner
Becky Vargas
&Tyler McHaney
After WW1, the world powers met to discus how Germany would pay for damages from previous war.
Lloyd George of England
Orlando of Italy
Clemenceau of France
Woodrow Wilson of U.S.
Wanted compromise
Wanted revenge
Opinion ignored
(Not trusted)
They could not agree.
So, they came up with the
Treaty of Versailles.

It was the first trigger for the war.
The Treaty of Versailles
The War Guilt Clause:
Germany had to accept the blame of starting WW1
Germany had to pay 6, 600 million of damage costs for war
Germany could not have tanks, no air force, no submarines and the Rhineland was to be de-militarized
Territorial Clauses:
Land taken from Germany and given to other countries and Anschluss (the joining with Austria) was forbidden.
Adolf Hitler
Did Not Like
the Treaty of Versailles
So, when he became Chancellor of Germany in 1933, he decided to:
Increase the size of his army.
Build Warships
Create German air force.
Build up Germany's weapon supply.
And the compulsory military service was introduced.
All in secret!
...Or Maybe Not So Secret
knew what Adolf was doing, but were scared of the spread of communism.
They thought Hitler's army could help stop it.
They were wrong
Not Happy
Hitler Starts to Take Over the World...Kind Of.
Takes over the Rhineland
Commits Anschluss (Joining with Austria)
Rome-Berlin Axis Pact: Allies with Italy
And on September 1, 1939 Germany invaded Poland, trying out the Blitzkrieg for the first time, setting off a scary series of events...
Britain and France declare war on Germany!
Well, Britain and France had sworn to defend Poland and pleaded with Hitler to withdraw, but no, it wasn't going to happen, so.....
What Happened Next?
World War 2 has just been started.
Who Were the Allied Powers?
Winston Churchill- British Prime Minister
Franklin D. Roosevelt-U.S. President
Joseph Stalin- General Secretary of the Communist Party of Russia.
The Good Guys
Nicknamed "The Big Three"
The Allied Powers were the countries fighting against the Axis Powers.
*Known for famous speeches to his people during the Battle of Britain*
*He led the U.S. out of the Depression and through WW2*
*Led Russia through horrible battles with Germany and millions died.*
Who were the Axis Powers?
*Hitler led Germany and his Nazis in a fight to overturn the Treaty of Versailles
*Proclaimed the Third Reich
*His ultimate goal was to make some room for the "master race" which was what he called the Aryans
*In 1933, he led the Nazis Party (nationalistic, anti-democratic, and anti-Semitic)
Adolf Hitler
June 6th, 1944
Disorganization and implementation of planning during the first stages
9,000 American casualties
5,000 ships and 13,000 aircraft were used in the invasion
Trigger #1
Trigger #2
"Peace In Our Time"
War Heroes
Dwight Eisenhower
Supreme commander of the allied forces
First supreme commander of NATO
34th President of the United States
Erwin Rommel
A.K.A. The Desert Fox
Field Marshall during the invasion of Normandy
Against killing prisoners of war
Earned his nickname while serving in Africa
George S. Patton
Captured enemies and emancipated territories faster than any other army in U.S. history
Nicknamed "The Crazy Cowboy General" by Hitler
Theaters of War
Began in 1941 with the attack on Pearl Harbor
Ended with the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945
Battles included: the
Battle of Wake Island
and the attack of
Pearl Harbor
Began in 1939 with the invasion of Poland till Germany's surrender in 1945
Battles include:
The Battle of Britain
Operation Sea Lion
Began in 1940 between Britain and Italy and ended in 1943 with the surrender of the axis powers in North Africa
Battles include:
Operation Compass
and the
Battle of El Alamein
*Began extermination of all Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals, ect.
Benito Mussolini
(Japanese Military)
Tag Team led by Germany, Japan and Italy
: collection of agreements between the countries, followed by axis binding Germany and Italy
Ant-Comintern Pact:
a mutual grudge against the Soviet Union
Pact of Steel
-Full military and political alliance between Germany and Italy.
*Formed the
Fascist Party
: opposed social class discrimination and were extreme nationalists
*Black Shirts:
Para-military unit, terrorized the streets and helped spread fascism
*Reduced unemployment
*Carried out public works program
*Invaded Ethiopia, added it to Italian Empire
*Followed Hitler's lead: exterminated jews
Attacked Manchuria, launching into war with China
The Rape of Nanking: slaughtered 300,000 civilians
Imperial military wanted to take over the world
Japan bombs Pearl Harbor in surprise attack
Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edouard Daladier, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain sign the Munich Pact.
Pearl Harbor
Hitler demands Czechoslovakia
Appeasement: Britain agreed to sacrifice the Sudetenland in order to keep the peace in what was called The Munich Conference.
And not a moment too soon, Hitler invades the rest of Czechoslovakia, declaring war on Britain and breaking the Munich Pact.
Apart from breaking the Munich Pact, Hitler also
Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in Hawaiin Territory on December 7th, 1941
More than 2,300 Americans were killed and 1,143 were injured
Sank and beached twelve ships and damaged nine other ships, including: the American battleship U.S.S Arizona , Oklahoma, Nevada, and West Virginia
The Japanese attacked on a weekend, Sunday, because they believed the Americans would be less alert and ready for the attack
The United States declared war on Japan the day after the attack, December 8th, 1941
Motivated both the Allied and Axis's population and increased production
After Pearl Harbor, propaganda increased production for war and conserving material for wartime
Helped Germany in becoming the efficient war machine
Spreading of ideas and beliefs
Women in the war
Around 350,000 women joined the Armed Services, serving home and aboard
Worked up to 48 hours a week in the winter and 50 hours a week in the summer
By 1945, there were 100,000 WAC's (women's Army Corps) and 6,000 female officers
"Rosie the Riveter" became one of the most successful recruitment tools in American history during WW2-stressing that women needed to enter the work force
Fighting against Communism, Nazism, Fascism, and Imperialism
And just wanted to keep the peace after World War 1
Powers including:
Robert Dippy
: Inventor of a radio navigation system used by multiple planes
Penicillin gained its popularity during war from
Howard Florey and a team of reseachers.
This anibiotic saved millions of lives during the war and still to this day
Battle of the Atlantic
Battle of Berlin
Battle of Britain
Battle of the Coral Sea
The Battle of Midway
The Battle of Normandy
(September 1939- May 1945)
military campaign of the whole war
Battle between the Allies and Axis powers for Atlantic sea routes
Objective for Allies:
create blockade of Axis powers in Europe, security of Allied sea movements, and provision of militray support to other Allies
Objective for Axis powers:
just wanted to pick a fight with the Allied powers
More than
convoy battles
*Cost Merchant Navy more than
30,000 men
3,000 ships
783 U-boats
28,000 sailors
(16 Apr 1945 - 2 May 1945)
Stalin sent in

20 armies,

8500 aircraft
6300 tanks
to wards Berlin after capturing Vienna
Germany was
easy target
Soviet generals obliterated Berlin, showering German lines with half a million shells five miles deep, while other Allies attacked from every other side of Berlin
Soon, after the Soviets pounded the life out of Berlin, Hitler committed suicide in his private bunker and Germany surrendered completely
A quarter of a million people killed in the last 3 weeks of WW2, about as much as the U.S. lost throughout the whole war
Hitler invades Britain, using the Blitzkrieg: "lightning" attack.
(Mid July-17 September)
Tries to gain air superiority, but Britain does not bow down, frustrating German generals.
Luftwaffe targets shipping in English Channel, defences, and coastal lines, but changes tactics and bombs London and other major cities
Hitler changes plans and turns sights on Soviet Union, leaving Britain in ruins
RAF lost about
aircraft and Luftwaffe lost
(4 May 1942-8 May 1942)
The Holocaust
Only battle fought entirely in the air
Inventors Continued...
Waldo Semon
, a scientist at the B.F. Goodrich Company, invented a synthetic rubber and oil that was cheaper to use instead of natural rubber and oil
Used termendously in WW2 for almost all war machines
By 1944, 50 factories were manufacturing it
John Randall & Harry Boot
Inventors of the Cavity Magnetron (a microwave transmitter now used in microwaves to heat food)
-Systematic killing of approximately six million Jews.
"Holocaust"- sacrifice by power
-The Nazis believed that Germans were racially superior to all other groups.
-2 out of 3 European Jews were killed by Germans
-There were death camps the Jews were sent to, to be killed.
Auschwitz- largest concentration camp the Nazis had.
-4.1 million people were killed at Auschwitz
Air Wars
-Before WW2 the GAF (German Air Force)
had the most powerful air force in the world, but
it was primarily for the direct support of ground armies.

-In its battles with the British and U.S. air forces it
would crumble.

-The USAAF bombed German aircraft plants at first.
Fought in the Pacific Theater, off the Northeastern coast of Australia
The U.S. and Australian forces fought against Japanese
Significance: stop Japanese plans to invade Australian port, would be the first defeat for Japan, and was a strategic victory for U.S. because it disabled Japan and kept them from fighting in the Battle of Midway
One of the most imprtant naval battles of the Pacific Campaign
June 4-7 1942
-61 countries involved

-1.9 billion people served worldwide

-16.1 million Americans served

-Each U.S. military serviceman served an average of 16 months overseas
-72 million people died worldwide

-291,557 American casualties

-671,846 American soldiers wounded

-84 German generals executed by Hitler

-40,000 men who served on U-Boats

-30,000 men who never returned from U-Boats
Led to the creation of the microwave and over a million TV dinners
Inproved portable radars during WW2, which helped the Allies wih an advantage over the Axis powers
Wanted to trap the U.S. and destroy all of their resources (similar to Pearl Harbor)
Inflicted enough damage to take Japan out of the rest of the war
Created their own sneak attack and ruined Japan's plans
: 4 carriers sunk, 1 cruiser sunk, 248 carrier aircraft destroyed, and 3057 killed
: 1 carrier sunk, 1 destroyer sunk, 150 aircraft destroyed, and 307 killed
(June 4-Allied Breakout July 1944)
Operation Overlord
-Largest amphibian operation in modern warfare
Allied forces included
: Canada, the Free French Forces, the United Kingdom, and the United States (after first assualt Poland, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Australia, Norway, and New Zealand would join)
Began on D-Day
What happened after...
- used to detect distant objects by receiving radio waves that are reflected from the object

- device used by aircraft to sight a target from the air and then accurately drop a bomb on that target

Nuclear Power
-The U.S. was first to harness nuclear power and made the first nuclear bomb killing between 150,000 and 244,000 people
Allied and United Nations decisions led to many problems, including tensions that created East and West Germany
The Allies also helped in creating North and South Korea and the Korean War
Tensions between Western Powers and the Soviet Union caused the Cold War
War crime trials took place, leading to many execusions and prison sentences of prominent Axis Powers leaders
Peace Settlements
Paris Peace Treaties were signed on
February 10, 1947
-the treaties allowed Italy, Romania,
Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland to
come back to their responsibilities
as sovereign states in international
affairs and to be able to qualify for
membership in the United Nations
End of World War 2
Who Started It?
in 1919, after World War 1, the world powers met to discuss how Germany was to pay for the damages of the previous war.
The powers included:
Woodrow Wilson from the US
Lloyd Geroge of England
Orlando of Italy
Clemenceau of France
Axis Powers
Allied Powers

End of the War Business
Wanted a compromise
Opinion ignored, since no one trusted him
Wanted brutal revenge
14 Point Plan
But they could not agree.
So, they came up with the
Treaty of Versailles.
Full transcript