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EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava Linn.)
Transcript of EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF GUAVA (Psidium guajava Linn.)
Baby pig scours
-Also known as “white scours” or “milk scours”
-One of the most economically important diseases
-One of the major cause of deaths of pigs
-An enteric disease caused by Escherichia coli
-Classified into three main entities
-Neonatal diarrhea (1 to 4 days old)
-Young piglet diarrhea (3 weeks old)
-Can be controlled or prevented by sulfonamides, antibiotics and arsanamides
E. coli action
- E. coli produces enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC)
- ETEC attaches to the small intestine
-produces enterotoxins that causes diarrhea
Prevention and Elimination of E. coli in the herd
-Maintaining good hygiene
-providing proper immunization
-Confirm and immediately perform therapy for the herd
-Piglets must be maintained at a constant temperature
- pre-starter to starter (30-34C)
- weanlings (29.5C)
Uses of Antibiotics in Farm Animals
- Hog industry ranked second in Philippine agriculture following the rice industry in terms of market contribution.
-due to the continuous demand of the Filipinos of hog meat (pork).
-Most farmers also prefer entering the hog industry due to the following reasons:
-High number of litter size
-Average length of growing stage (weaning to finisher)
-Efficiency in converting feeds into meat
-Very little labor is required
- Antimicrobial agent
- treats clinically sick animals
- prevents or reduces the incidence of infectious
- Growth promoter
- increases efficiency and growth rate
Risks of Antibiotics
- Retain the strains of bacteria which are resistant to
- Resistant bacteria may be transferred to human
- Antibiotic residues found in products from treated animals
Guava (Psidium guajava)
- One of the most distributed crop in the tropic and subtropics
- Has antibacterial properties
- Medicinal uses
-diarrhea and dysentery throughout the Amazon
-for sore throats, vomiting, stomach upsets, for vertigo, and to regulate menstrual periods
- for bleeding gums and bad breath,
- prevent hangovers (if chewed before drinking)
Methods and Materials
I. Site and duration
II. Preparation of test material
III. Experimental Animals and Design
VI. Experimental Diets
VII. Economic analysis
VIII. Chemical analysis
IX. Statistical analysis
I. Site and Duration
- The study will be conducted from October 15 to December 15, 2013 at Animal Science Dairy Cluster Farm in Tungtungin Putho, Los Banos Laguna
II. Preparation of Test Material
- Leaves will be collected from Biotech
- Dried overnight
- ground and stored
- 97.20% dry matter, 10.50% crude protein, 2.10% crude fat, 21.86% crude fiber, 56.26% NFE and 6.48% ash
III. Experimental Animals and Design
A total of 16 pre-starter pigs (4 weeks of age) weighing 8 to 22 kgs will be
used in this study. The pigs will be distributed to four treatments in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replicates per treatment.
V. Experimental Diets
The commercial pre-starter feeds
- not less than 20% crude protein,
- not less than 3% crude fat,
- not more that 5% crude fiber,
- not more that 12% moisture content,
- 0.8 calcium
- not less than 0.70% phosphorus
The commercial starter feeds
- not less than 18% crude protein
- not less than 3% crude fat
- not more that 5% crude fiber
- not more that 12% moisture content
- 0.85% to 0.90% calcium
- not less than 0.70% phosphorus.
VI. Care and Management of Animals
- The feeding period will last for 60 days or until the pigs is 12 weeks of age.
- Pigs will be fed with their corresponding diets twice a day (7:00am and 3:00pm). - Each pig will be monitored for the occurrence of diarrhea.
- Rectal swabs will be collected from the 16 piglets start and at the end of the
- Body weight will be determined at the start of the experiment and every week
up to the end of the feeding period.
- Average daily gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency and occurrence of
diarrhea will be determined every week.
- The effect on scouring will also be evaluated based on the consistency of
the fecal matter of each pig which will be rated 1 to 5 and as follows:
VII. Economic Analysis
Only the variable cost of production which is the cost of pre-starter pigs, feeds, and antibiotic will be included in the computation. Fixed cost such as transportation and labor cost will not be considered. The total feed cost will be computed based in the current price during the time of study.
The feed efficiency of the pigs will be computed by dividing the average daily feed intake of the pigs with the average daily gain of the pig times 100%. The feed cost per kilogram will be derived from the total feed cost over the total gain in weight of the pigs.
VIII. Chemical Analysis
Proximate analysis will be conducted to determine the nutrients present in the feed samples and guava leaf meal. The calcium and phosphorus content of the guava leaf meal will also be determined. The swabs will be subjected to laboratory tests to determine the presence of the enteric E. coli at CVM- Veterinary teaching hospital Tabon, Maahas, Los Banos, Laguna.
IX. Statistical Analysis
All gathered data will be analyzed statistically using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) following a completely randomized design (CRD). Treatment means will be compared using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT).
Yij = µ + τi + εij ; i= 1,2,3,4 j=1,2,3,4,5
Yij = observation from the jth piglet given the ith treatment
µ = overall mean observation
τi = effect of the ith treatment
εij = random error associated with jth piglet given the ith treatment
Agbisit, jr. E.M. et al. 2005. Laboratory manual in animal science 2: Introduction to livestock
and poultry production. Los baños, Laguna. Animal and dairy sciences cluster, College
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Bureau of agricultural statistics. 2002. Swine industry performance report.
Retrieved on April 30, 2013 from www.bas.gov.ph
Bureau of plant industry. 2011. Production guide: Guava
Retrieved on May 1, 2013 from www.bpi.gov.ph
Ellis, N.R. & Shuman, R.D. 1956. Diseases of baby pigs. Washington DC. US department of
Fairbrother, J.M 1992. Diseases of swine: 7th edition. D’ Allaire, S. et al (Ed.). Canada. Wolfe
Food and fertilizer technology center.2013. Leaf meal from alternative sources. FFTC: Taipei,
Krider, J.F., J.H. Conrad, and W.E. Carroll. 1982. Swine Production. New York: McGraw-Hill
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Wolgamot, I.H. et al. 1905. Pork facts for consumer edujaction. Washington DC. US department
- Average Daily Gain
-Feed Conversion Efficiency
-Occurence of Diarrhea/ E. coli