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Causes of War Terrorism and their Impact on the Public Servi

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Jennifer Mills

on 27 March 2015

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Transcript of Causes of War Terrorism and their Impact on the Public Servi

Definitions of War and Conflict
"A state of armed conflict between different nations or states or different groups within a nation or state."
CAUSES OF WAR AND CONFLICT
LOOK BACK TO THE LIST OF WARS AND CONFLICTS WE CREATED.

WHY DID THESE CONFLICTS START?


CAN YOU THINK OF ANY OTHER REASONS?
Impact of Conflict on the Public Services
Direct military combat.
Peacekeeping.
Evacuation and security of UK Nationals.
War crimes investigation
Disaster relief and refugees
Training and military civilian personnel.
Causes of War Terrorism and their Impact on the Public Services
"A serious disagreement or argument, typically a protracted one."

Question....what is the difference between a war and conflict?
Traditionally countries tend to have a formal declaration of war to ensure both countries and the people in them know that is the case.
Conflict and War
A war is always a conflict. However, conflicts don't always include wars.

You could have a conflict with friends or family. Or politicians have conflicts between themselves and different parties.
Question....what types of public services might be involved in wars and conflicts?
Why the Public Services?
Most wars occur within a country not between countries. This is called a civil war.

However the services play a vital role, not just in combat but in peace keeping and humanitarian efforts.

As 90% of countries are multicultural the level of conflict shows no sign of decreasing. Civil war is now much more common than international wars.
Activity

In groups of 5/6 make a list of as many wars and conflicts/troubles you can think of.
The Spectrum of War and Conflict
Minor
Major
Please place the conflicts we have discussed on this scale in ordr of how serious you think they are?
HIGH INTENSITY
LOW INTENSITY
These are conflicts that will involve an army. They may include several countries coming together in a lethal manner. They rarely exceed 6-10 years. They are less common now. Thousands die. Examples include;
WW1
WW2
Vietnam
Falklands
Iraq
These can last many decades. They often have roots in cultural and religious issues over hundreds of years. They tend to involve low level military attacks and retaliation. They tend to be border disputes and rebellion via terrorist action. This kind of conflict is more common. Examples include;
Middle East
Northern Ireland
Korea
Cold war
A lot of the conflicts that occur move from low intentisty to high, or are somewhere in the middle.
Areas of Instabilityand Risk
Question...can you name two or three areas where there is a risk of conflict or unrest/trouble?
Areas of Conflict
Middle East - rising frictions over oil and religious differences, land and military superiority, religious, political and terrotorial issues. Long standing issues in Israel. Nuclear capabilities r Iran and Iraq.
Africa - many countries have been left unstable by the aftermath of colonisation. This has led to civil wars and conflicts, especially in Zimbabwe and Somalia.
Korea - long standingtension betweenNorth and Sotuh Korea. China the US and the UK are involved in this.
Politics
Arguments are rife here over territory - E.g the argument between India and Pakistan over Kashmir.
Many countries are part of an alliance - NATO, EU, UN and an attack on one would mean an attack on them all - WW! and ".
Politics can be internal - struggles between different political groups.
Arguments can occur over people wanting a different political system or independence - Scotland.
Nationalism
Often people feel so strongly about their cultural identity they will do anything to protect it.
This may be in one small area or the whole country.
This is called nationalism and it can lead to persecution of the people who do not belong to the 'dominant' culture.
It can cause conflict if the leaders have a different nationality or culture to the people they are leading - Ireland.
Religion
Religion can be great at pulling society together and making people adhere to moral codes.
However, it can cause conflict if there are different religious groups who hate and mistrust each other.
Equally religious groups can become annoyed if they feel they don't have enough power in the running of the country.
Northern Ireland.
Ideology
This is a set of values about how things should be organised.
People can have different thoughts about how things should be run.
In some circumstances this can lead to conflict.
Russia and the US had different ideology about how things should be dealt with leading to the cold war.
Land and Resources
Nations involve themselves in war over national resources - oil, gas, water etc.
As they cannot be moved countries can be invaded for their resources.
As these countries need the resources for their own money they will not appreciate other countries taking them.
We can also have conflict over access to ports, sea, cities or trade.
Conflict can also occur over computer technology and scientific advancement.
Historical Rivalry
Some countries have been in conflict for a very long time and the issues flare up and down over time.
Israel
Korea
Northern Ireland
Causes of War and Conflict
Please read the two articles on page 232 and 233 of your booklet and answer the questions.
Ethnic Differences
This can cause conflict if one ethnic group is denied access to resources.
Examples include - education, healthcare and housing.
This can lead to ethnic cleansing or genocide.
Examples include - Nazi/Jews and the South African apartheid. Also slavery and persecution the the black people in the USA.
Task....Please fill in the table in your booklets using the information on page 237.
Direct Military Combat
Many people lose their lives or are severely injured.
They may witness horrific events which may lead to mental illness or post traumatic stress disorder, alcoholism and suicide.
They may witness the death of friends or colleagues.
They may have been exposed to chemical or biological weapons.
The service needs to rep0lace lost personnel and equipment.
They may need to retrain for new conflicts.
The services take great pride in victory, so a loss would be very detrimental.
Peacekeeping
Services run the risk of being caught in military combat.
They are not deployed until there is a ceasefire but this does not mean they are safe.
In 50 years over 2300 peacekeepers have been killed.
Peacekeeping may be a source of pride to the PS.
The services may need to deploy equipment and personnel to peacekeeping missions, moving it from other projects.
Evacuation and Security of UK Nationals
If there are British citizens stuck in a country where a conflict is occurring it is the responsibility of the Politicians and the armed forces to evacuate those people safely.
War Crimes Investigation
War crimes include - rape, murder, genocide and torture.
Only brought to light at the end of the conflict.
May be accused themselves so must have very professional conduct.
Services must follow all the correct wartime regulations set out in the Geneva convention.
May be called upon to give evidence.
An allegation of a war crime would devastate the public services as they would loose their credibility.
Disaster and Relief Refugees
Can effect mental health.
Can affect physical health - contamination.
Pride at helping the needy.
The service will have to liaise with other services.
Costly.
UK - first for tsunami and Hurricane Katrina.
Training Military and Civilian Personnel
Re- train personnel in other nations.
Very rewarding.
Dangerous - still at war/conflict.
Shouldn't affect the defence of our own country.
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