Subtopic Three

Is crime Increasing Over Time?

Subtopic

Thesis

**Crime in Canada**

Proving or Disproving The Thesis

Males VS Females

The types of crime that were investigated were sexual assault and homicides in youth.

**By: Katie Palmer**

I Predict that crime in Canada is on the rise.

Do males commit more crime than females?

In the age group 16-17 years, men commit much more crime than women. This statement is based on the two categories homicide and sexual assault. So out of the two crimes explored in this presentation men are responsible for 90.45%.

The previous graphs both prove and disprove my thesis. However, looking at the line of best fit, more graphs disprove my thesis than graphs that do. Therefore, crime in Canada is not on the rise.

These graphs explore murder committed by both males and females from the data collected. I noticed:

-there is a higher frequency of fewer murders committed in the female category

-the histogram of males follows a fairly normal distribution

-based on the pattern it follows, there is a low frequency of fewer murders committed.

-most murders committed were the median of the data which is still much higher that females

-to sum it up males commit more murder, more frequently than women

Overview

In the following presentation I will discuss Crime in Canada. I will look into the following topics:

-Is crime on the rise?

-Do Males or Females commit more crime?

-What age group is responsible for more crime?

-Out of the topics explored, what type of crime is most popular?

The population of the study is youth in Canada who have been recgonized as guilty for committing sexual assault or homicide.

Introduction

I predict that crime is on the rise. I think this because the population has increased, with a higher population it presents more opportunity for crime.

MALE VS. FEMALE

Methodology

In order to prove/ disprove my hypothesis, I:

-collected data from Statistics Canada about crime in Canada

-used variables such as type of crime, year, sex and number of cases -

-used this data to look at patterns over the years in order to determine if crime has increased or decreased.

A difficulty I had with the data, was the possibility of the data being misleading. I can't be sure how people were surveyed, or if there were any bias because I didn't collect the data.

Other problems I experiences were having to manipulate data because it did not transfer to Fathom properly.

Crime Committed

y=-6.0075x + 12223

Correlation Coefficient

r=0.8485

Equation of line of best fit

y= 0.6299x-1247.9

Correlation Coefficient

r=0.5831

Equation of line of best fit

y=0.0504x - 92.7

Correlation Coefficient

r=0.0768

Mean 11.055556

Median 10.5

Mode 11

Mean 1.1666667

Median 1

Mode 1,2

IQR 0

Q1 0

Q3 2

Mean 13.388889

Median 13

Mode 18,21

Equation of line of best fit

Mean 193.38889

Median 186

Mode 180

Mean 8.1666667

Median 8

Mode 8

Equation of line of best fit y=-14.886x + 30250

Correlation Coefficient

r= 0.9327

Mean 439.45367

Median 465

Mode 500

IQR 6

Q1 7

Q3 13

Standard deviation- 0.9235

Standard deviation- 5.1160

The graph shows that sexual assault is more commonly committed than homicide, it accounts for 96.66% of crime between the two types.

Is crime on the rise?

Mean 193.3890

Median 186

Mode 500

Mean 439.4537

Median 465

Mode 180

Q1 - 168

Q3 - 215

IQR - 47

Q1- 366

Q3- 500

IQR- 134

Percentile Quarters

In three of the four previous graphs a very prominent plunge takes place in 1995. Experts say this was due to:

-increased imprisonment

-changing of police strategies

-strong economy could afford more officers.

The type of distribution this graph displays is skewed distribution to the right. This shows that as years go by, the frequency of crime drops.

Homicide committed by females ranged from 0-3. It is split fairly equally about 33% of the time span women commit either 1 2 or 3 murders. Which is much less than males.

The graphs show that age group does have affect on the amount of crime committed.

-Age group of 12-15 years has an average of sexual assaults of 439

-Age group of 16-17 years has an average of sexual assaults of 193

This can be explained by maturing with age.

Mean Medians Modes

These prove that men commit more homicide than women.

Mode- The most frequently occurring amount of murders for males is 11, females is only 1 or 2.

Mean-Male average murder 11, female average murder 1.

Distribution of the data is skewed to the left. This means that throughout the years, the years with higher homicide occurred most. This actually shows that 16-17 age commits more homicide.

Distribution of the data is fairly normal. There is an interval with greatest frequency then for the most part the intervals decrease. Mean median and mode are located at peak.

The circle graph actually proves that the younger age group commits more crime.

Although the older age group committed slightly more murders, they commit much less sexual assault.

Mean 439.4537

Median 465

Mode 180

Q1- 366

Q3- 500

IQR- 134

Mean 8.1666667

Median 8

Mode 8

Q1 - 6

Q3 - 10

IQR - 4

I predict sexual assault is more common.

Mean Medians and Modes

These prove that sexual assault is much more common than homicide.

-on average 8 people murder a year while 439 commit sexual assault.

-IQR shows the data spread is much higher for sexual assault.

The data is:

-skewed distribution to the right

-in the case of females there is a higher frequency of less assaults committed

-disproves prediction

The data is:

-fairly uniformed aside from the outlier of 3 that happened once.

-shows that most years female youth commit total of either 0,1,2 murders in Canada.

Through out the presentation conclusions have been made about all topics. In summary, it was concluded that crime is not on the rise, with further research it was discovered that this is due to a better economy and improved services in Canada.

It was also concluded that:

-males commit more crime than females

-younger age groups are responsible for more crime

-sexual assault is more common than homicide

Sources of Bias

It is possible that the project has sources of bias:

-did not collect data, so it can not be sure that collection methods were not bias.

-the topic of sexual assault could have been unfavourable to men, because men are usually responsible to sexual assault over women, BUT not always.

References

Levitt, S. D. (2004). Understanding Why Crime Fell In The 1990s: Four Factors That Explain The Decline And Six That Do Not. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 18(1), 163-190. Retrieved January 10, 2014, from http://dx.doi.org/10.1257/089533004773563485

Statistics Canada. (2013, October 28). Government of Canada, Statistics Canada. Retrieved January 11, 2014, from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/start-debut-eng.html

Q1, Q3, IQR

Conclusions

Although female sexual assault is more common than female homicide, the previous graphs show that in total sexual assault is much more common than homicide.

Improving Studies

In order to make studies more accurate, I could include a different crime, instead of sexual assault to avoid bias for males.