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The Ancient Roman Empire

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Matthew Tester

on 4 October 2013

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Transcript of The Ancient Roman Empire

The Ancient
Roman Civilization

How Rome Started
Legend, taught in ancient Roman schools, of
Romulus and Remus
depicting the creation of the city of Rome
This is a legend however: sailors traveling west would've found the
Italian peninsula
, led by a strong leader like Romulus to where
Rome
came to be (~800BCE)
Area settled at a bend in the
river Tiber
, various early settlements found on the 7 hills surrounding
Lived in simple mud huts in marshland:
uncivilized
originally
Separated settlements join together to become the city of Rome for
protection
Early form of governmental council called
Senate
forms from
aristocratic families
; however, they were led by a
king
Roman's established a
strong army
and from there began conquering other areas: by 300BCE all of the
Italian peninsula was under Roman control
Expansion of the Empire
Expansion out of Italian Peninsula began with the Carthaginians of
Carthage
, Northern Africa: led to the three
Punic wars
- Carthage sacked and destroyed (146BCE)
This victory allowed the Romans to expand further throughout the Mediterranean as their army grew more powerful with the more
wealth and bodies
they accumulated
Their
army
, brutal, highly skilled and technologically advanced, was the leading force of the Roman Empire
Spread into
Western Europe
into the countries that are now England/Wales, France, Spain and Greece.
Spread East and South to what is now the
Middle East
and the
North African
coastal regions
Height of the Roman extent and power around
150CE
The Roman Civilization
Three Distinct stages of Government: Monarchy to Republic to Empire
Monarchy
- First king being Romulus; the king ruled with a council of aristocrats called the Senate (~800BCE - ~500BCE)
Republic
- Monarch ousted and replaced with oligarchy lead by two Consuls from the aristocratic class (still known as the Senate)
Empire
- Augustus became the first emperor in 27 BCE; there remained a Senate but the Emperor had central power
The Fall of the Roman Empire
Decline
of Empire began about
190CE
Attacks against the Roman Empire from fierce tribes such as the
Goths
and
Vandals
weakened their defenses on the outside and the inside
There was a succession of Emperors after 190CE who weren't able to
properly govern

Army
spread too thin throughout Empire to act effectively and becoming to
expensive
to fund
Empire split into the Western and Eastern Empires; the
capital
was moved from Rome to
Constantinople
leaving the west vulnerable
Western Empire overtaken
by various tribes; traditional date of fall in
476CE
Geography
City of Rome located on the
river Tiber
in what is now central Italy - navigable and rich for agriculture
Italian Peninsula provided a jumping off point for the conquering of lands bordering the
Mediterranean Sea
Italian Peninsula is divided by the
Apennines
mountain range
The Roman Army
Consisted of
Non-Combatants
(Slaves or servants), the
Roman Legions
(made of groups of soldiers), and
Standard Bearers
(Flag holders, Aquila, etc.)
Worked in very coordinated groups led by
Centurions
, entire Legion lead by a single
General
Soldiers
provided
with breastplate, helmet and shield
Utilized either a
javelin
and/or a
short sword
for varied range of attack
"Spoils of war"
given out to members of the army, making military life very
lucrative
Social Class
Sharp social classes formed in the late Republic
Patricians
consisted of
Senatorial
class, then below is the
Equestrian
class
Plebeians
in order of
Commons
(Roman Citizens),
Foreigners
(freeborn men and women in other Roman territories),
Freedpeople
(former slaves), and
slaves
Most foreigners granted
full citizenship
212CE
Key Leaders
Romulus (~800BCE)
- First king of Rome; founder of city whom the city is named after
Julius Caesar (101 - 44BCE)
- Assumed dictatorial position over Roman Republic; reformed calender and currency, brought outsiders of Italy into the Senate, and expanded area out to Spain, Gaul (France), Greece and Africa
Augustus (44BCE - 14CE)
- Previously Octavian, adopted son of Caesar; first emperor (in name) of Rome, although acted more as a citizen than an emperor; Empire flourished politically and economically under him
Trajan (98 - 117CE)
- Born in Spain, first non-Italian Emperor: most popular of the Emperors, he took the lands of Romania, Jordan, and swept down to Baghdad. Many things built under him, including two libraries and many baths
Marcus Aurelius (191 - 180CE)
- Born in Spain: very intelligent and philosophical Emperor, but spent most of his reign in war in defending the Empire from invaders
Monuments and Cities
Rome
Original city; where governance was located
Roman Forum
Colosseum
The Pantheon
Constantinople
Most prominent city in the Eastern Empire; became capital in latter part of Empire
Carthage
Located in Northern Africa; acted as a melting pot of cultures and a commercial centre
Religion in Ancient Rome
Polytheistic
; believed in many Gods adopted from Greek Mythology
Jupiter
was considered the most important who was the King of the Gods
Many temples were built throughout the Empire for the worship of the Gods: they would've been elaborately decorated with an alter and priest
Pantheon
built in
Rome
as temple for all the gods
Christianity in Ancient Rome
Christianity spread to Rome by
St. Paul
; he had already started churches in Asia Minor and Greece
Christianity initially adopted by
slaves
and peoples of
lower classes
Persecution
of Christians was very common; fed to lions for entertainment
In 313CE Christianity was made
legal
to worship, and was adopted as official
religion of Rome
in 391CE
Intellectual Arts of Rome
Formed basis of our modern laws: All men were
equal under law
, people were
innocent until proven guilty
, etc.
Art and architecture shared similarities to
Greece
, but art was more
realistic
opposed to idealistic and architecturally Romans used more
arches
and
domes
in their building. Romans also built
aqueducts
for transporting water,
roads
for land based travel and many
harbours and bridges
Visual arts could be found in the form of
architecture, sculpture, paintings and mosaic
Education
was very important to the Romans but exclusively
male
and for the
affluent
; however, many poorer peoples still learned to
read and write
Sources
www.vroma.org
January 2009, Barbara McManus
www.library.thinkquest.org
1999, SPQR Online
www.historylearningsite.co.uk
2000, Chris Trueman
www.ancienthistory.about.com
September 2013, N.S. Gill
www.crystalinks.com
September 2013
Ancient Rome by
Hal Markowitz, 2012
Roman Empire by
Nigel Rogers, 2012

By Matthew Tester
Full transcript