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Global 9 Review Timeline

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by

Brian Deerr

on 1 June 2014

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Transcript of Global 9 Review Timeline

EUROPE
ASIA
AFRICA
Middle East (SW Asia)
Rest of Asia
AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA AFRICA
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EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE EUROPE
Mesopotamia - "land between rivers"
Located within Fertile Crescent
Indus River Valley
Huang He River Valley
Nile River Valley - Egypt
Between Tigris & Euphrates Rivers
Unpredictable flooding, no natural barriers
Hammurabi's Code
- 1st written code of laws
Ziggurat - temple/government building
Cuneiform - writing system
Predictable flooding, natural barriers (deserts & cataracts)
Theocracy
- pharaoh was both a king and a god
Dynasties
- rulers from same family
Hieroglyphics - writing system
Papyrus as paper
Mummification - preserve bodies for afterlife
Developed a calendar
Indian
subcontinent
- greatly affected by
monsoons
Unpredictable flooding, natural barriers
Planned

cities
- Harappa & Mohenjo Daro
Indoor plumbing
Caste

system
China - surrounded by natural barriers, unpredictable flooding
Loess - yellow silt left after floods
Ethnocentrism
Terrace farming
Mandate of Heaven
claimed by ruling dynasties
The Hebrews
First
monotheistic
group
Founder:
Abraham
Holy Book: Torah
Code:
Ten Commandments
Moses
led the Exodus out of slavery in Egypt
Frequently mistreated throughout history (Egyptians, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Romans, etc.)
Diaspora - dispersal throughout the world
Hinduism
Buddhism
Polytheistic
Founder: None - brought by Aryans?
Holy Book: Vedas, Upanishads
Karma
- results of good/bad deeds
Dharma
- role in life
Goal: Achieve
moksha
(perfect understanding) and release from cycle of
reincarnation
(rebirth)
Tied very closely to
caste system
No gods
Founder:
Siddhartha Gautama
(Buddha)
Holy Book: Tripitakas (Three Baskets of Wisdom)
Rejects caste system
Four Noble Truths
Eightfold Path
- way to live a good life
Goal: Achieve
nirvana
(enlightenment), become free from desire, and end cycle of reincarnation
The Ancient World
through 5th century CE

The Middle Ages
6th century CE - 15th century CE

The Modern World
from 16th century CE

Early Chinese History
Shang Dynasty - first in China with written records
Oracle bones
Importance of family,
ancestor worship
Zhou Dynasty - developed idea of
Mandate of Heaven
Feudalism
Iron weapons
Philosophies
Legalism - law & order, very strict
Daoism - living with nature
Confucianism
- social relationships,
filial piety
,
civil service system
Warring States - period of disunity in China
Shi Huangdi and the Qin Empire restore order through use of
legalism
Han Empire - golden age,
Silk Roads
for trade, large government bureaucracy

Maurya Empire
India, 322 - 185 BCE
Government bureaucracy
Asoka
- set up pillars with Buddhist principles
Gupta Empire
India, 320 - 550 CE
Rich through controlling trade
Middlemen on Silk Roads
Greece
City-states because of geography
Polis
- center of political/social life
Polytheistic
Variety of governments
Democracy
(Athens) - each citizen has a say
Oligarchy (Sparta) - controlled by a small group
Aristocracy - upper class has power
Monarchy - ruled by a king
Sparta and Athens take different paths
Athens emerges as the lead city-state after the
Persian Wars
Golden Age of Pericles
- short-lived, focus on architecture, philosophy, sculpture, and theater
Alexander the Great
spreads
Hellenistic culture
Rome
Republic
- government with representatives
Patricians
and
plebeians
Twelve Tables
- Roman written code of laws
Punic Wars eliminate Carthage's power
Julius Caesar and the transition to an empire
Pax Romana
- golden age of architecture, artwork, theater
Constantine accepts
Christianity
Empire split into East & West
Fall of Rome
- 476 CE
Many factors include: size of empire, external threats, inflation, declining loyalty...
Leads to
Dark Ages
of Europe
Christianity
Monotheistic
Jesus
seen as son of God
Holy Book: Bible
Old & New Testaments
Code: Ten Commandments
Originally persecuted, then accepted by Roman Empire
Later splits into many branches
Eastern Orthodox
Protestant Reformation
Byzantine Empire
Formed during the split of the Roman Empire
Justinian & Theodora
Justinian's Code
- updated Roman law
Hagia Sophia
Tried to expand territory & Christianity
Great Schism
- Christianity splits into Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox faiths
Spread Eastern Orthodox faith and language through trade
Islam
Monotheistic
Founder:
Muhammad
Holy Book: Qur'an
God:
Allah
Abraham, Moses, Jesus all seen as
prophets
Code:
Five Pillars
of Islam
Holiest city: Mecca
Sunni/Shi'a split
Religion spread through converts & conquest
Golden Age of Islam
- focus on science, mathematics, art, literature
Left northern Africa (lack of resources)
Desertification
- Sahara grows each year
Migrated
southward
Farmed, fished, traded, used iron
Slash & Burn Agriculture
Arabic + Bantu = Swahili
Great Zimbabwe was capital
Ghana - controlled
Gold-Salt Trade
Traded in equal amounts
Mali - also powerful because of gold deposits
Mansa Musa
- the man who made Mali Muslim
Powerful and incredibly wealthy king
Growth of Timbuktu as a city of law, medicine, religion, and scholarship
Ibn Battuta - "the Muslim Marco Polo" - traveled the world
Songhai - once again, rose to power because of gold trade
West African Kingdoms
The Dark Ages
After fall of Rome
Unsafe, no large governments
Viking raids
Charles "the Hammer" Martel
- stopped the Muslim invasion of France
Charlemagne
(Martel's grandson) -
the "light" of the Dark Ages
Brought back education, provided safety, spread Christianity
Crowned
Holy Roman Emperor
Europe returned to the Dark Ages after his death
Life of the
manor
Rise of
feudalism
- land for loyalty
Knights - warrior class, followed
Code of Chivalry
The Crusades
Pope Urban II calls for a crusade to free the Holy Land
Many reasons to go (get land/wealth, forgiveness of sins, adventure, fight for Christianity, etc.)
First Crusade is successful, others less so
England & France
1066
- Battle of Hastings -
William the Conqueror
invades England
1215
-
Magna Carta
- guaranteed rights of people, limited power of the king of England
Parliament
- England's law-making body
English Common Law throughout the land
Rise of the Capetians in France
Development of a stronger central government
Called for meetings of lords and bishops
Eventually included wealthy landowners, too
Set up courts
The Plague
Struck Europe's population in the mid-14th century
Killed 25 million Europeans?
1/3 - 2/3 of Europe's population
Carried by fleas on rats
Weakened the power of the Church and the feudal system
Trade declined
Hundred Years' War
War between
England
and
France
over territory and control
England does well early on, but France recovers and drives the English out
English longbow
Joan of Arc
Increasing
nationalism
Weakened power of church and code of chivalry
End of Middle Ages in Europe
Tang & Song China
Large, bureaucratic government
Civil service system
Scholar-officials rise to create gentry
Golden Age - art, poetry, inventions (printing, gunpowder, magnetic compass)
Trade over Silk Roads and by sea
Footbinding
The Mongols
Nomads from steppes of Asia
United by
Genghis Khan
Conquered most of Asia
Grandson -
Kublai Khan
- began Yuan Dynasty in China
Pax Mongolia
- golden age - Silk Roads safe to travel once again --> cultural diffusion, plague spreads to Europe
Japan, Korea, & SE Asia
Mountainous geography & seas --> isolation
Some cultural diffusion from China through Korea
Samurai
served local warlords
Followed
Code of Bushido
(very similar to chivalry)
Emperor did not hold much actual power
Shogun
(top general) was in charge
Korea & SE Asia were wealthy through trade & contact with China & India
AMERICAS
AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS AMERICAS
Renaissance
Trade in Italy --> wealth & new ideas
Humanism
- emphasis on value of each human
Classical art & literature, questioning, focus on achievement
Artistic golden age - new styles, techniques
Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo
Printing press
(Gutenberg) helped spread ideas
Protestant & Catholic
Reformation
Martin Luther
questions Catholic Church
95 Theses
Lutheran Church
Henry VIII creates Church of England (Anglicans)
Calvinists
- believed in
predestination
Presbyterians, Anabaptists, etc.
Catholic Church reforms in some areas (Jesuits), but stays the course in others
Start of the
Inquisition
Mayas, Incas, & Aztecs
Bantu-speaking Peoples
Varied geography
Mayas - jungle, forest
Incas - Andes Mountains
Aztecs - hot, dry climate
Polytheistic
Human sacrifices for Mayas & Aztecs
Advanced civilizations
Mathematics, astronomy, calendar, architecture, roads
Incas & Aztecs defeated by
Spanish conquistadors
Age of Exploration
Europeans explored and
colonized
the Americas
Spain & Portugal took the lead
Encomienda
system - Spanish used Native Americans as labor force
Atlantic Slave Trade
- slaves imported from Africa to work on plantations in Americas
Columbian Exchange
- exchange of plants, animals, goods, diseases between Old & New Worlds
Disease
wiped out entire Native American populations
Spanish
conquistadors
fought Incas & Aztecs
Christian
missionaries
came to convert Native Americans
Chinese exploration - Zheng He sailed treasure ships to show off Chinese wealth
Human Origins
Lucy and
hominids
as archeological evidence of evolution
Walked upright
Human
migration
out of Africa
Paleolithic
- Old Stone Age
Neolithic
- New Stone Age
Neolithic

Revolution
- change from hunter-gatherers to farmers in villages
Full transcript