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Behavioral Intervention Strategies for Teaching students with ADHD
Transcript of Behavioral Intervention Strategies for Teaching students with ADHD
ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurological condition that negatively impacts a person’s capability to remain attentive and increases a person’s hyperactive and impulsive behavior. 5 - 12% of children worldwide
are affected by ADHD. How does ADHD affect student behaviour? That means there will be a child with
ADHD in almost every classroom in the world! Increased aggression and non-compliance
Difficulty interacting with peers
Potential for lower than average academic performance
Excessive talking, fidgeting and interrupting
Tendency to move around the classroom
Antecedent and Consequence Based Strategies Antecedents are events that precede and potentially trigger the occurrence of specific behaviors, so antecedent-based strategies focus on preventing triggers of certain behaviors.
Consequence-based strategies are tools that can be used for managing both positive and negative behaviors. Antecedent
Strategies! 1. Classroom setup and routine.
Post and review classroom rules and expectations. When a student has a consistent reminder of what is expected of them this will help regulate the frequency at which they might act out.
Seat the student near the front of the classroom.
Be consistent with the classroom schedule so the student can learn to expect what the daily routine will be.
2. Reduce task demands.
There are many ways to make a task less frustrating for a student:
Modify the length of an assignment to make it more manageable.
Give a student extra time to complete the task.
Provide short pieces of instruction at a time.
Break up task into "chunks" which are smaller, more workable steps.
3. Give Students Choice!
This is important for all students, but in particular for students who are frequently distracted and disengaged from their work. If a student is given the opportunity to make a choice regarding the type of work they are asked to do, they are more likely to maintain interest in the work and this is an easy way to help the student enjoy learning and prevent behavioral issues. Diminish clutter in the classroom.
Provide closed workspaces such as cubicles.
Avoid arranging the students desk into a group.
Help your student stay organized by working with them to create a checklist of daily tasks. How can teachers help students
with ADHD manage their behavior
and acheive success? 4. Help Students Manage their Aggressive or Angry Behaviors.
Provide students with a safe place to express negative feelings.
Teach the student various cool-down techniques, such as deep breaths or going to a quiet place.
Provide the student with training on resolving social conflict by using appropriate dialogue.
5. Consider why the student might be acting "off-task."
Is the task:
And does the student:
understand what is required of them
have the necessary skills to perform the given task Now, it's inevitable that even when a teacher is implenting all of the previously discussed strategies in order to prevent inappropriate classroom behaviors, students may still act out. So as a teacher, how should you respond? Consequence-based strategies! Consequence based strategies are to be developed with the purpose of handling the events following a specific behavior. 1. Token Reinforcement
Students gain praise, or receive token reinforces such as stickers or points, when they exhibit a certain desired behaviour, but can lose tokens when not behaving appropriately.
The accumulation of tokens can be used as incentive to encourage the student to work towards a chosen reward or privilege.
2. Time-outs and classroom removal.
As a last resort, students that are severly misbehaving may need to be removed from the classroom. This should not be done regularly or used as a threat.
Instead if a student is consistently acting out, first try moving their physical location (having them change seats), or taking a time out in a quiet part of the classroom (such as a cubicle).
If the behavior issue involves other students, separate the students involved and remove any stimuli that may be contributing to the behavior. The strategies listed have briefly outlined many helpful ways to intervene with the behavioral issues that may arise when teaching students with ADHD.
Now let's look at some examples! Mary is in Grade 2. She is a very pleasant girl but is very easily distracted. She frequently talks while the teacher is explaining a task and then when given time to work on the task often get out of her seat and disrupts other students.
What are some strategies that could be used to help Mary succeed on the assigned tasks and prevent this type of behavior? There are several methods that would help Mary and the teacher in this situation:
Have Mary sit near the front of the class, and not with a group of desks, only one or two others, facing forward.
Go over the expecatations for Mary during times when the teacher is speaking.
Once finished giving instruction to the class go over the instructions for the task with Mary in short segments. Use the "chunking' technique, where small portions of the task are explained at a time.
Check on Mary during short time intervals, if she stays on task, give lots of positive reinforcement.
Rob is in Grade 11 and taking mostly workplace level courses. He is tired of school and doesn't want to be there anymore. In particular, he struggles with English because he says it's boring and has trouble focussing. When questioned about being off-task, Rob can become quite angry and has mouthed off to his teacher several times.
How might Rob's English teacher work towards engaging Rob in the course material and promoting positive behaviors? Some potential strategies that could be implemented when working with Rob are:
Choices! Allow Rob to have some say in the types of assignments and topics of the assignments he is given.
Diversify the work done in class to avoid repetition or specific tasks that Rob finds boring.
Reduce task demands by giving Rob increased amount of time or shorter tasks so that he can gain confidence by completing the given task.
Give Rob space to express his negative feelings by allowing him to see the school counselor, and develop techniques with him to control his anger when frustrated with the teacher.
Use positive reinforcement and don't tollerate rude behavior directed at the teacher or other students. Students affected by ADHD have just as much potential as any other student. By implementing strategies that help students control their behavior and successfully participate in classroom activities and tasks, these students can grow and develop, and become life-long learners. As teachers, you can have a huge impact on the educational experience of your students. So it is incredibly important to help students with ADHD to see past their learning differences and encourage them to work hard to reach their goals! References:
Barry, L. M., & Messer, J. J. (2003). A practical application of self-management for students diagnosed with attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(4), 238-238-248. doi:10.1177/10983007030050040701
Cook, M. N. (2005). The disruptive or ADHD child: What to do when kids won't sit still and be quiet. Focus on Exceptional Children, 37(7), 1-1-8. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/224042049?accountid=14391
DuPaul, G. J., Weyandt, L. L., & Janusis, G. M. (2011). ADHD in the classroom: Effective intervention strategies. Theory into Practice, 50(1), 35-35-42. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/898326167?accountid=14391; http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&id=doi:10.1080/00405841.2011.534935
Fowler, M. (2010). Increasing on-task performance for students with ADHD. Education Digest: Essential Readings Condensed for Quick Review, 76(2), 44-44-50. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/815957396?accountid=14391; http://www.eddigest.com/index.php
McLaughlin, T. F., & Reiber, C. (2004). Classroom interventions: Methods to improve academic performance and classroom behavior for students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. International Journal of Special Education, 19(1), 1-1-13. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/195809107?accountid=14391
Tannock, R. (2007). The Educational Implications of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder . What Works? Research into Practice, April 2007. The Literacy and Numeracy Secretariat, Government of Ontario. Retrieved from http://edu.gov.on.ca