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3D Bioprinters Project Proposal

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by

JY Tang

on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of 3D Bioprinters Project Proposal

Background
DATE: November 4, 2013
BY: Jiayin Tang, Megan Kerber, and Nick Labun
Microbiology 5th Period
Goals
1. Create a relatively low-cost and easy to build bioprinter
2. Use it to conduct successful experiments (including printing cells to create 3D gel structures, study cell differentiation, metabolic interactions of different microbial species, among others).
3D and Bioprinting: Recent History and Development
Aim 2
To create functioning X-Y platforms by disassembling CD/DVD drives to retrieve stepper motors and then wiring the motors into a breadboard and Arduino
Able to identify that the motors inside were indeed stepper motors, as the ribbon cable consisted of four wires.
Wires will then attach to a breadboard, stepper motor drivers, and a Protoshield
Aim 5
Test and modify the cartridge and printer
We will need to test our emptied cartridge to see if it will properly print bioink.
Create a sterile environment
Build a sterile hood in order to plate bioluminescent microbes (most likely E. coli or yeast)
Aim 3
Determine how to control the movements of the cartridge
Cartridge will need to be mounted onto a printhead and then connected to the open source InkShield PCB,
Connected to and driven by the Arduino microcontroller.
Aim 1
To understand the mechanics of printing in two dimensions.
Serves as an introduction to bioprinting, because 3D printing technology is based off of inkjet printing
Through part 1-3 of the Preliminary Results, we were able to fulfill our first aim.
Aim 4
To take advantage of vast amount of public domain scripts available, and to modify them to conform to the specific needs of our project
We set out to learn the complex coding necessary to produce a program that will allow for the control of the stepper motors
Summary
Priorities
Timetable
November 15 - Complete modifications to 2-dimensional inkjet printer; complete modifications to ink cartridges and successfully test all components;
December 1 - Start learning how to drive the stepper motors and connect them to the Protoshield; begin preliminary testing of Arduino stepper motor programs in development console; complete design for 3-dimensional printing
January 15 - Finalize stepper motor programs and 3-dimensional printing design; enable functionality of InkShield with Arduino and begin testing of X-Y platform maneuverability; begin constructing biological integrity hood
February 1 - culture GFP-expressing microbes
March 15 - Incorporate all components of new printer, attempt simple 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional functionality tests
April 1 - Begin experimentation with biological organisms and materials
Research Plan
Part 1
Disassembled a salvaged HP Photosmart C4180 All-in-One printer, managed to obtain a power cord adapter for the printer, and located and disabled the motion sensor used to detect when the printer tray was open.
Part 3
Closed the cartridges and replaced them in the printer and printed several copies to get rid of any residual ink in the cartridge.
Part 2
The recycled printer ink cartridges were opened, cleaned, and prepared for reuse.
Abstract
Bioprinters (3D printers that print with cells instead of plastic) have been used to construct skin grafts, blood vessels, and miniaturized hearts. They are also extremely useful for drug testing.
Basic technologies are accessible, as they are based around inkjet and 3D printing technologies; it is still possible for us to simulate the functions of a bioprinter by making our own do-it-yourself bioprinter.
Ultimate goal: understand 3D printing mechanisms and its application to bioprinting
3D Bioprinting
Specific Aims
1. Understand the mechanics of printing in two dimensions
2. Create moving X-Y platforms for three dimensional printing
3. Control the movements of the cartridge
4. Modify open source bioprinting code for Arduino to conduct our own experiments
5. Test the bioprinter

Preliminary Results
Part 4
Part 5
In 1984, Charles Hull created the first three-dimensional printing process
Bioprinting evolved from the concept of 3D printing in which it prints using cells rather than an inorganic material such as plastic or metal
In 2009 a community known as biohackers adapted and started to investigate the world of 3D and bioprinting and came up with the DIY kit to make an open source bioprinter.
DIY Bioprinters and Applications
Arduino and Variants
Stepper Motors: Functions and Applications
Stepper Motors and the Arduino Prototyping Platform
Stepper Motors and Arduino:
Challenges and Workarounds
Stepper Motors and Arduino: Circuit Design and Function
InkShield and Printing with Arduino
Obtained and disassembled two CD/DVD disk drives, and retrieved the stepper motor from both. Identified the motors as bipolar, due to the four wires in their ribbon cables and attempted to remove extraneous components of the laser apparatus.
In order to drive the stepper motors, we need to wire the motors to a breadboard to be controlled with Arduino. We began to strip the ribbon cables to tin and solder onto longer wires.
1. Learn how to drive stepper motors; connect them to the Protoshield
2. Learn how to code with Arduino
make a hood
3. Culture GFP-expressing microbes
4. Test cartridges
5. Conduct preliminary experiments

DIY bioprinters are not sophisticated enough to print tissues such as skin, blood vessels, and miniature hearts, the bioprinters can be used to conduct various small-scale experiments.
Includes studying cell differentiation by printing different patterns of growth hormones on cells, studying the metabolic interactions between several different species of microbes, and others.
Arduino is an open source prototyping platform that includes multiple variations of the same basic system
Differing in size and the number of data input/output pins, as well as power capacity and data handling capabilities
Arduino Mega features several notable variations:
5 V and 54 input/output pins for greater power tolerance memory capacity that results in faster processing
Brushless DC motors that rotate at known intervals based on digital pulses of power, enabling high precision and repeatable positioning
Two types of stepper motors exist in practical usage
unipolar: two coils each divided into four parts
bipolar: divided into only two coils, and often require an H-bridge to allow voltage both directions across the circuit
There is extensive documentation of use of stepper motors with Arduino
Public domain Arduino codes can be modified to drive the X-Y platform of the bioprinter
Schematic illustrates a possible layout for a complete Arduino and bipolar stepper motor circuit, including an SN75441ONE H-bridge
Configuration of microcontroller inputs/outputs 1+2 (left) and 3+4 (right)
Ex: may need to be altered due to the limited availability of pins on the Arduino board
InkShield, an open source inkjet shield developed specifically for use with the Arduino/Arduino Mega microcontrollers
Enables a cartridge and print shield to be connected to an Arduino, effectively converting the board into a 96 dots per inch (dpi) inkjet printer
Operation of the stepper motor in our application necessitates more current than the Arduino microcontroller can provide without temporary malfunctions or permanent damage
A compatible SN75441ONE H-bridge, a type of circuit that allows voltage to be applied in both directions, will be utilized to alleviate the strain on the Arduino board and ensure the current is transferred safely and effectively
Full transcript