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Nature of Science - Mr. Collins

This presentation gives a brief introduction into the methods of science.

Marcus Collins

on 22 August 2012

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Transcript of Nature of Science - Mr. Collins

What is science? Science is a process that uses observations and investigations to gain knowledge about events in nature. So...What do scientists do? Scientists ask questions, conduct experiments and investigations to learn more about the natural world. 3 Main Categories of Science Earth Science Life Science Physical Science Study of living things Investigates Earth and space Deals with matter and energy Science What does science do? Science helps us understand the natural world. How do we learn about the natural world? Scientists learn new information by investigating. This can be done by Observing Or... Setting up experiments How do scientist go about solving problems? They use the Scientific Method It has six common steps: State your problem This asks "why" or "how" something happens or occurs in nature. Gather information Before testing a hypothesis, you should learn as much as possible about the background of the problem. Form a hypothesis A hypothesis is a possible explanation for a problem using what you know and what you observe. Test the hypothesis This can be done by simply observing or conducting experiments. Experiments tests the effect of one thing on another using controlled conditions. Analyze the data Recording observations and organizing data into easy-to-read graphs and tables. Most experiments have at least two variables. dependent variable independent variable Factor that changes as a result of changes in the other variables. Factor that, as it changes, affects the measure of another variable. Constants and Controls Constants are things that DO NOT change in an experiment. Controls are the standard that your test results can be compared. Drawing Conclusions Based on your observations and data, you decide whether your hypothesis is supported or not. If hypothesis is supported, then... Repeat several times If hypothesis is NOT supported, then... Modify hypothesis You must also make sure your data is not biased, meaning that you don't select only the results that support your hypothesis. How do see things that are too large or too small or take too much time to observe? We use models No, not that kind! We use scientific models. Scientific theories and laws A scientific theory is an explanation of things or events based on knowledge gained from many observations and investigations. A scientific law is a statement about what happens in nature that seems to be true all the time. So, how are they different? Theories explain what happens.
Laws simply states that it happens. Are science and technology the same? No, technology is the application of science to help people. Wrap - up
Why is science limited to natural explanations of how the world works? What are the three main branches of science? Scienece is limited to things that can be tested. Things like emotions and values cannot be tested. Life science, Earth science, and Physical science How do scientist go about solving problems? They use the scientific method. Why is it important to have only one variable that changes or is tested in an experiment? So you can tell what actually produced the results you observed.
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