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Unit 15: Instructing Physical Activity and Exercise
Transcript of Unit 15: Instructing Physical Activity and Exercise
Body Composition After completing this unit you should :
Know the principles of safe and effective exercise sessions
Be able to design an exercise programme
Be able to plan and lead an exercise session
Be able to review the design of an exercise programme and leading of an exercise session Unit 15: Instructing Physical Activity and Exercise 'the ability of a muscle - or group of muscles - to exert a maximal force or overcome a maximal resistance in a single contraction' amount of strength generated size of muscle or muscle group direct proportion aerobic endurance 'the ability of the heart, lungs, blood vessels and skeletal muscles to take in, transport and use oxygen efficiently, and over a prolonged period' Muscular endurance Strength Components of Fitness Flexibility 'the ability to move a joint through a complete and natural range of motion without discomfort or pain' Body Composition 'the body's physical make-up in term's of fat and non-fat (or 'lean') body tissue.'
measured in several ways However a person's weight is not a key consideration as lean muscle tissue weighs more than an equal amount of fat tissue. Someone may be considered 'heavy' according to standard guides but have very little percentage of body fat. Write down what do you know about the principles of fitness training. What can you remember from GCSE or previous knowledge? In 2's discuss the following sports and identify the key components of fitness: rugby, sprinting, tennis and gymnastics. Why do the components of fitness differ for each of these sporting activities? How might these differences affect a training programme? Adaptations to Training Using your previous knowledge and the internet list 5 short-term changes to the body during exercise Now list as many long term physiological changes to the body due to exercise Myofibrils Hypertrophy For hypertrophy to occur, the muscle has to be actively stimulated.
The easiest method is as part of a weight training programme. Increased muscle tone Decreased resting heart rate Muscles Oxygen Water + Carbon dioxide Pumps BODY Fat-to-Lean decrease body fat % increase lean body mass Demand Oxygen Exercise Duration/Intensity Changes include:
The heart muscles become larger and stronger therefore allowing it to pump greater amounts of oxygenated blood.
Haemoglobin is produced in greater amounts.
Skeletal muscles improve their energy production from oxygen becoming more efficient on less oxygen Increased stroke volume The amount of blood that can be pumped from the heart's ventricles in one contraction. Cardiac output The amount of blood that is pushed out of the heart in 1 minute. This is the equivalent of stroke volume (sv) x heart rate (hr) Long term aerobic exercise increases the size and efficiency of the heart and stroke volume, which in turn results in a slower heart rate. F
T Frequency Intensity Time Type Write a description of each component of the fitt principle giving an example for each to show your understanding 1.2 Health and Safety There are many reasons as to why a training programme may be unsafe:
poor or broken equipment
individual medical conditions
pre-existing injury To minimise risks the following as a minimum precaution can be carried out. PAR-Q
Risk assessments Contraindication - 'a physical or mental condition or factor that increases the risk involved when engaging in a particular activity. Contra means 'against'.' TASK
Think of an activity for each contraindication and give examples of how the contraindication may restrict the activity Write down in no more than 5 sentences what a Risk Assessment is and what it is used for. Now look at your sentences and try again without using the words safe, safety, review and suitable....can you do it? Now in groups of three discuss what types of behaviour would create a risk factor in an exercise environment 2. Be able to design an execise programme 2.1 Structure 1. Introduction to a session
2. The Warm-up
3. Duration of sessions
4. Activities (methods of training)
5. Exercse Intensity
6. Training zones
7. Karnoven Formula
8. Rating of Percieved Exertion (RPE)
9. Cool Down Speed learning 2.2 Factors to consider when designing an exercise programme Motives Barriers Current Physical activity level Goals Short Long S.M.A.R.T.E.R 2.3 Clients Various abilities Individuals and groups Specific groups Older people Children The obese Code of ethical practice Rights Relationships Personal responsibilities Professional standards Thinking about the assessment activity 15.2, what ability of athlete do you think you are required to create a training plan for? Will you be planning for an individual or a group?