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Noble Gases

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Camryn Diss

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of Noble Gases

By: Camryn, Lara, and Shelby Noble Gases Helium Neon Argon Krypton Xenon Radon Chemical Properties: Physical Properties: *Melting point- -272.2 C
*Boiling point- -268.93 C
*low solubility
*high thermal conductivity
and inertness
*low density
*very low reactive *critical temperature -267.96 C
*refractive index 1.000035 (no units)
*isotopes: 3 * used to cool superconducting magnets
*airships & balloons can be filled with helium to gain lift
*can be added to oxygen tanks so divers can breath more easily
*helium-neon lasers can be used to scan bar codes
*can be used to detect leaks in high pressure equipment Uses of Helium helium is a gaseous element present in the sun's atmosphere and in natural gas, also occurring as radioactive decomposition product. Helium is also used as a substitute for flammable gases in dirigible balloons. Helium Neon is a chemically gaseous element occurring in small amounts in the earth's atmosphere. Neon *its glows reddish-orange color in a vacuum discharge tube
*its chemically inactive
*its been impossible to make neon react with any other element
*its chemically inactive because it forms no compounds Chemical Properties *atomic mass average is 20.1797
*it's a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas
*physical state: gas
*changes from gas to liquid at
-245.92 C
*liquid to solid at -248.6 C
*Density .89994 grams per liter
*boiling point
-245 C
*melting point
-248 C Physical Properties *neon lighting
*neon signs
*manufacture of lasers
*very precise kinds of surgery
*in nature, it exhibits a cubic crystal structure Uses of Neon Argon is an inert gaseous element constituting approximately one percent of Earth's atmosphere. Argon *Helium is an inactive gaseous element.
* It's chemically inactive because it's an inert element.
*It also does essentially form chemical compounds
*inert elements don't have normal reactions with any other elements. *chemically inactive
*extremely inert
*forms no stable compounds
*its chemically inactive because it's extremely inert. Chemical Properties *colorless, tasteless, odorless
*nontoxic gas
*exists in both liquid and gaseous form
*gas density: 1.784 kg/m3 Physical Properties *liquid density: 87.01 lb/ft3
*boiling point: -302.6 F
*melting point: -308.8 F
*critical point: -188.4 F
*isotopes: 6 *electric lights
*fluorescent tubes
*photo tubes
*glow tube
*lasers
*used as inert gas for welding and cutting
*also used as inert gas for blanketing reactive elements *also used as inert gas for prospective(nonreactive) atmosphere for growing crystals of silicon and germanium Uses of Argon krypton is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36, it's a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. Krypton *Has 6 stable isotopes
*It's an nonreactive gas
*Krypton is a completely inert gaseous element
*Krypton has no reaction with any element
*It has no reaction because it does not generally form chemical compounds.
*It also has no reaction because of the fact that the element has full valence shells. Chemical Properties *Boiling point: -153.4 C
*Melting point: -157.2 C
*Atomic number: 36
*Atomic mass: 83.8 amu
(amu is a atomic mass unit)
*Number of protons and electrons: 36
*Number of neutrons: 48
*Crystal structure: cubic
*Density: 3.74 g/cm3 Physical Properties *lighting products
*white light output in high temperature plasma makes it valuable for photography
*used to detect the presence of otherwise secret nuclear weapons
*Expensive incandescent bulbs use krypton as a filler gas due to its high thermal conductivity.
*glows a pale mauve color when excited with a high voltage electric current. Uses of Krypton Xenon is a noble gas, it's a chemical element with the symbol of Xe. It's a gaseous element found in the atmosphere. Xenon *In a gas filled tube xenon emits blue light when excited by electrical discharge.
*generally nonreactive
*known as completely chemically inert
*also unable to form compounds
*however in 1962 the first xenon compound was made
*including xenon difluoride, xenon tetrafluoride, xenon hexafluoride, xenon tetroxide, xenon hydrate, xenon deuterate
*highly explosive compound xenon trioxide has also been made
*at least 80 xenon compounds in which fluorine or oxygen is bonded to xenon
*some of the compounds are colored but most are colorless Chemical Properties *Atomic number: 54
*Atomic mass: 131.29
*Colorless
*Odorless
*Boiling point: -108.13°C
*Melting point: -111.8° C
*Density: 5.8971 grams per liter
*Atomic Mass Average: 131.29 Physical Properties *Photographic flashes
*High pressure arc lamps for motion picture projection
*High pressure arc lamps to produce ultraviolet light
*Bactericidal lamps
*Strobe lamps
*Lamps for surgery
*Vehicle headlights
*Electron tubes Uses of Xenon Radon is a chemical element with symbol Rn, it's one of the densest substances that remains a gas under normal conditions. It is also the only gas under normal conditions that only has radioactive isotopes. It is very toxic. Radon *chemically inert
*highly radioactive
*soluble in water and organic solvents
*reaction with other compounds are very rare
*able to form stable molecules with highly electronegative materials
*has several isotopic forms, but only two are found in significant concentrations in the environment
* one is radon-222 is involved in radioactive decay of uranium-238
*second one is radon-220 is formed in the decay of thorium-232 Chemical Properties *Odorless
*tasteless
*invisible gas that mixes with air
*heaviest noble gas
* highly soluble in non-polar solvents
*moderately soluble in cold water
*able to diffuse through rock and soil
*decays by alpha particle emission (T 1/2 = 3.8 days)
*melting point: -71.15° C
*boiling point: -61.75° C Physical properties *Used for treating cancer by radiotherapy
*Frequently used as a treatment for arthritis in European countries
*Many years ago, radium salts were mixed into paint to make it glow in the dark
*Earthquake prediction: increased levels of radon in the ground water can be a sign to an incoming earthquake
*Can be used to detect air, water, or steam leaks Uses of Radon Helium
http://www.webelements.com/helium/physics.html
http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/he.htm
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/helium?s=t
Neon
http://www.webelements.com/neon/physics.html
http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/ne.htm
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/neon?s=t
Argon
http://www.webelements.com/argon/physics.html
http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/ar.htm
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/argon?s=t
Krypton
http://www.webelements.com/krypton/physics.html
http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/kr.htm
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/krypton?s=t
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/323979/krypton-Kr
http://www.webelements.com/krypton/chemistry.html
Xenon
http://www.webelements.com/xenon/physics.html
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/xenon?s=t
http://chemistry.wikia.com/wiki/Xenon
Radon
http://www.lenntech.com/periodic/elements/rn.htm
http://www.chemistryexplained.com/elements/P-T/Radon.html
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/radon?s=t Bibliography *Inert- unable to move or act
*Gaseous- existing in a state of gas
*Insipid- lacking flavor, not tasty
*Solubility- the quality or condition of being soluble
*Conductivity- the ability or power to conduct or transmit heat
*Inertness-having little or no ability to react, as nitrogen that occurs uncombined in the atmosphere.
*decomposition-the state of being decomposed; decay.
*Chemical compounds- a chemical substance consisting of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements
*dirigible-an airship.
*conductivity-the property or power of conducting heat, electricity, or sound.
*refractive-a change in the direction of a wave, such as a light wave
*isotopes-any of two or more forms of a chemical element, having the same number of protons in the nucleus, or the same atomic number, but having different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus, or different atomic weights.
*superconductivity-the vanishing of electrical resistance in certain metals, alloys, and ceramics at temperatures near absolute zero.
*manufacture-to make or process into a finishes product
*germanium-a brittle crystalline gray-white metalloid element, widely used as a semiconductor
*valence-the combining capacity of an atom or radical determination by the number of electrons that it will lose, add, or share when it reacts with another atom
*incandescent-emitting visible light as a result of being heated
*mauve-a grayish violet to reddish purple
*bactericidal- a substance that destroys bacteria Definitions Neon The noble gases are located in the 18th group of the periodic table. They are all odorless, colorless, and monatomic gases. (monatomic: containing one replaceable atom or group.) Noble Gases
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