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Equity and Diversity (Collaborative Assignment)
Transcript of Equity and Diversity (Collaborative Assignment)
Interesting Facts about Mexican Culture
• The first Mexicans to become part of the United States never crossed any border. Instead, the border crossed them. (library of congress)
• The Mexican people have been here in California and throughout the American South-West for a very long time.
• Their culture has endured war, land being taken away from them, as well as a history of social and economic unrest. They have met these circumstances with creativity and tenacity, enduring hardship most notably, through music
• Mexicans first arrived in present-day New Mexico in 1598 and founded the city of Santa Fe in 1610.
• In 1846, everything changed. War broke out between the U.S. and Mexico over the U.S. annexation of Texas. Mexico was defeated, and in 1848 the two nations signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. This treaty gave the victorious nation an enormous amount of land, including what would later become the states of California and Texas, as well as parts of Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah and Nevada, in exchange for a token payment of $15 million.
• Overnight, tens of thousands of Mexican citizens had instantly become residents and citizens of the United States.
• The treaty that ended the war, guaranteed the Mexican people rights to their land. However, because their land was so far away from large centers of U.S. Government, they found that they were unprotected in hostile territory and their land was often taken as the land guarantee was not enforced.
• From the latter 19th century to turn of the 20th century, more immigrants crossed the Mexican border into a land filled with social and economic unrest. Violence often ensued. It was a harsh time. Even some of those who were supposed to enforce the law were corrupt.
• Because of this strife, one of the ways Mexican-Americans overcame their circumstances was through the creation of music called “Corridos” or “Border Ballads”.
• These songs told the story of current events and happenings. Here is an example of a “Corrido” about the Rebel Leader: Pancho Villa’s troubles: Notes from the lyrics include: “16 stanzas about Pancho Villa’s trouble around Matamoras, a Mexican village across the river from Brownsville, Texas. 118 men were wounded”, sung by Jose Suarez.
Cultural Assimilation of Mexican Population in California
Mexican in the United States
Equity and Diversity (Collaborative Assignment)
Members of the group:
Daysi A. Valle
The first Mexicans that came to be part of the United States never crossed any border. In 1848, the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which resulted in Mexico losing almost half of its territory. Mexico surrendered 890,000 square miles, close to one-half of its territory. Six years later, in order to finish construction of a transcontinental railway, the United States purchased an additional 30,000 square miles of Mexican land for $10 million. This acquisition was made final through the Gadsden Treaty of 1854. With this treaty, California, Nevada, Utah, Texas, and parts of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado and Wyoming became part of the United States. (Marín, 2014).
During the Mexican revolution (1910-1920), many Mexicans came to the United States fleeing instability. This translated into a tripling of the Mexican immigrant population between 1910 and 1930, from 200,000 to 600,000.
Mexicans continued to work in the United States until the Great Depression struck in late 1929, and the U.S. government mounted a repatriation campaign. This led to as many as a half a million Mexicans and U.S. citizens of Mexican descent being deported.
The third great surge in Mexican immigration came after the passage of the US Immigration and Nationality Act in 1965 (Marín, 2014).
Mexican immigrants continue to come to the US because of extensive family ties built up over generations, and the lack of adequate wage-earning opportunities in Mexico
by the Mexican group
Some barriers faced by Mexicans upon arriving in the United States are:
First, language since the language in the U.S is English some Mexicans were locked out of high and professional positions.
Another barrier has been gaining citizenship because it is expensive and time consuming.
Obtaining health care has been a barrier as well because, “1996, the U.S. passed legislation that further restricted the provision of many publicly funded services to undocumented immigrants” (Arijit Nandi et. al).
Lastly, Mexican immigrants faced minimal pay more often than the American minimal wage. The passing of proposition 187 was a significant barrier to Mexican immigrants because it limited social services, education and health care to non-citizens; however the bill was later struck down as unconstitutional.
Services in schools
Some Special services are in place in schools for Mexican immigrants:
Modified instruction techniques such as SDAIE (specially designed academic instruction in English).
ESL programs, bilingual immersion programs, and dual language programs.
In addition, several schools that have a high number of immigrants offer outreach programs, for example: at Triton College in Illinois there is the Nuevo’s Horizontes program that offers offers citizenship classes, parenting workshops, academic counseling, cultural events, tutoring in Spanish and English, and math in a culturally friendly atmosphere for immigrant students and families (Orozco & Teranishi).
Moreover, there are also pathways to college programs offered at various schools that help Mexican immigrant students obtain the college dream.
Mexican boy playing guitar in room of corral. Robstown, Texas
Article Arthur unknown. California Grants Drivers License to undocumented immigrants. retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com
Center for Immigration Studies www.cis.org
Batalova, J., McHugh, M. (2010). DREAM vs. Reality: An Analysis of Potential DREAM Act Beneficiaries. retrieved from http://www.migrationpolicy.orgs
Johnson, K., Trujillo, B. (2011). retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com.ezproxy.nu.edu
Lib. of Cong. U.S. Govt. Web. 10 February 2012. http://www.loc.gov/ teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/alt/mexican2.html
Nandi, A., Galea, S., Lopez, G., Nandi, V., Strongarone, S., Ompas, D. (2008). Access to and Use of Health Services AmongUndocumented Mexican Immigrants in a US Urban Area. retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.nu.edu
Marín, A. E. (n.d.). Mexican American. Retrieved April 15, 2014, from Countries and Thier Cultures: http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Le-Pa/Mexican-Americans.html
Martinez, Celedonio Serrano. El Coyote-Corrido De La Revolucion. 1951, Mexico. Detail, Woodcut De Francisco Moreno Capdevila .UCLA Latin American Institute Center for Mexican Studies. April 15, 2014. http://web.international.ucla.edu/lai/article/130115
Orozco, C., Orozco, M., Teranishi, R. (2011). retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com.ezproxy.nu.edu
Russel, Lee. Mexican boy playing guitar in room of corral. Robstown, Texas. 1939, Feb.. Photograph. Lib. of Cong., Washington D.C. Lib. of Cong. Web. 16, April, 2014. http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/fsa2000013486/PP/
Scribner's statistical atlas of the U.S. Map. New York: Scribner’s Sons. 1860. Lib of Cong Web. 15, April, 2014. <http://www.loc.gov/resource/g3701gm.gct00009/#seq-55>
Suarez, Jose. Corrido Villesta de la toma de Matamoros. Rec. 26 April 1939 by John and Ruby Lomax. sound recording. Lib. of Cong. Web. 17 April, 2014. <http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/lohtml/lohome.html>
For new teachers in dealing with Mexican immigrants is to try to understand their culture and respect it so that any inhibitions that students may have can subside (Twanna).
One characteristic that is of paramount importance in most Hispanic cultures is family commitment, which involves loyalty, a strong support system, a belief that a child's behavior reflects on the honor of the family, a hierarchical order among siblings, and a duty to care for family members. Therefore, as teachers build a strong relationship with students and families is imperative (Daysi).
I would recommend that as a new teacher has books and other materials in both English and Spanish so that each student can succeed. If there are students that are Spanish-Dominant in language see if the school has an ELL program to make sure the students can succeed. It may also be beneficial if there is a buddy system in the classroom if there are other students who speak Spanish they will be able to help out the new student (Krista).
Engage students in conversation about the stories in some of these historical songs. This will celebrate the Mexican heritage of students in the classroom, as well as to enlighten and bridge any cultural gaps that exist with students from other cultures! Songs are in Spanish, so language and translation will encourage as well. This will lead to respect and understanding, and a feeling of acceptance. This will benefit new immigrants to California from Mexico, as well as honor the students whose families immigrated earlier (Annamarie).
I would recommend that new teachers familiarize themselves with common customs of Mexican culture. Teaching about how Mexico was colonized, just as the United States are very easy ways to integrate new cultures. Also teaching the class about Cinco de Mayo, or telling them stories about Día de los Muertos, we can allow all students to become more cultured, and allow the cultures of other students to be respected and understood (Shawn).
1. Twanna Jackson ( Question #1, references, recommendation)
2. Annamarie Mattews-Hussey (Question #4, music, references, recommendation)
3. Krista Nelson (Question #3, table, references, recommendation)
4. Daysi Valle (Question #1, recommendation, references, presentation)
5. Shawn Wikel ( Recommendation)