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Taurus Constellation - The Bull

Astronomy 102 Presentation made by Allan, Marcus, Natalie & Sara

Awesome AstroGroup

on 5 September 2012

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Transcript of Taurus Constellation - The Bull

By: Allan, Marcus, Natalie, Sara Constellation Presentation Right Ascension: 4 hours
Declination: 15*
Latitudes: between 90* and -65* Taurus, "The Bull" can be seen in the winter sky from November to March, but the best time to view Taurus is 21:00 in January. Taurus covers the sky at about 767 square degrees. (Zimmerman) it's one of the oldest constellations dating back to the bronze age. History of Taurus Mythology Aldebaran (Alpha Tauri): Comes from the Arabic name Al Dabaran which means "The Follower." The origin of the name, being the brightest star of the Hyades, appears to follow Pleiades as the night sky moves. Aldebaran can also be identified by the latin name Cor Tauri, which means "Heart of the Bull. It's last name comes from the latin name Parilicium which is known as a festival for a rural goddess. Meaning of Star Names Physical Data of Stars Non-Stellar Objects Other Interesting Facts References: Dolan, C. (2010). Taurus. The constellations. Retrieved from: http://www.astro.wisc.edu/~dolan/constellations/constellations/Taurus.html

Clavin, W. (2004). Raw ingredients for life detected in planetary construction zones. Nasa news. Retrieved from: http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2004/may/HQ_04167_spitzer_ssu_prt.htm

Kaler, J. (n.d.). Ain. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/ain.html

Kaler, J. (2007). Alcyone. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/alcyone.html

Kaler, J. (2009). Aldebaran. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/aldebaran.html

Kaler, J. (n.d.). Atlas. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/atlas.html

Kaler, J. (n.d.). Celaeno. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/celaeno.html

Kaler, J. (n.d.). Electra. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/electra.html

Kaler, J. (n.d.). El Nath. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/elnath.html

Kaler, J. (2007). Hyadum I. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/hyadum1.html

Kaler, J. (n.d.). Hyadum II. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/hyadum2.html

Kaler, J. (n.d.). Maia. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/maia.html

Kaler, J. (n.d.). Merope. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/merope.html

Kaler, J. (n.d.). Taygeta. Retrieved from: http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/taygeta.html

Kronberg, C. (1997). Constellation Taurus. Seds. Retrieved from: http://messier.seds.org/m/m001.html

Kronberg, C. (2001). The Hyades, Mel 25. Seds. Retrieved from: http://messier.seds.org/xtra/ngc/hyades.html

Kronberg, C. (2009). Messier object 45. Seds. Retrieved from: http://messier.seds.org/m/m045.html

Gendler, R. (2006). M45: The Pleiades star cluster. Nasa astronomy picture of the day. Retrieved from: http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap060109.html

Nasa. (2009). The Crab Nebula: a cosmic icon. Retrieved from: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/chandra/multimedia/photo09-096.html

Zimmerman, K.A. (n.d.) Taurus constellation: facts about the bull. Space.com Retrieved from: http://www.space.com/17101-taurus-constellation.html Elnath: Also known as El Nath or Alnath, the name of this star comes from the Arabic word an-nath, which means "The Butting" (or the Bulls Horns). This star was named based upon it's position in the constellation, which is the tip of one of the horns in Taurus. Hyades: This name originated as a greek name for the daughters of Atlas who were the group of nymphs who brought rain. This star can be found in the lower part of the "V" shape in Taurus. Pleiades Cluster: To the east of those three stars is the
a cluster of stars called the Pleiades. This name came from
greek mythology, which told of seven sisters of Atlas and
Pleione, and half sisters of The Hyades. http://www.topastronomer.com/StarCharts/Constellations/Taurus.php In size, Taurus is the 17th largest constellation. http://www.brighthub.com/science/space/articles/23801.aspx In the zodiac Taurus is the 2nd sign.
Some traits of the Taurus include strong, stubborn, and loyal.
The chinese refer to this constellation as the white tiger of the west. www.domeofthesky.com www.constellationsofwords.com www.naic.edu Image: (Nasa, 2009) Messier I The Crab Nebula This famous supernova was observed on July 4, 1054 AD by Chinese astronomers as a "guest star."
It was
4x brighter than Venus (magnitude -6)
visible in the daylight for 23 days
visible in the night sky for 653 days
also depicted in Native American art. The Crab Nebula was discovered by John Bevis in 1731. Its name comes from a drawing by Lord Rosse in 1844. Spectroscopic views in the 19th Century of the Crab Nebula revealed its gaseous nature.

In 1913-15, Vesto M Slipher found that the spectral emission lines were split (later found to be due to Doppler Shift).

In 1919, Roscoe Frank Stanford found that the spectrum had 2 main contributions:
1- It had a reddish component - consisting of chaotic web of bright filaments.
diffused gasses --- planetary nebula

2- It had a strong blueish diffuse background with a continuous spectrum The Crab Nebula is made up of ejected supernovae material that has spread out about 10 light years in diameter. It is expanding at a velocity of 1,800 km/seconds.

In 1930, the filaments were confirmed to be remnants of the former outer layer of the star that exploded.

The inner, blueish nebula emits continuous light consisting of highly polarized "synchrotron radiation"
- this is emitted by high-energy (fast moving) electrons in a strong magnetic field. The Crab Nebula has a strong source of radio radiation. This x-ray source is known as Taurus X-1. It is about 2 arcminutes in size, and the energy that is emitted is 100x more than the energy that is emitted in visible light. On November 9, 1968, a pulsating radio source was detected from within the Crab Nebula at Arecibo.
This pulsar, the Crab Pulsar (NP0532) is a rapidly rotating neutron star that rotates at a rate of 30x/second. The Crab Pulsar is super dense. Imagine the mass of the Sun compacted to about 30 km (18.6 miles) across!
The Crab Pulsar's absolute magnitude is +4.5. (Kronberg, 1997) Messier 45 The Pleiades RA: 5h 34.5 min
Dec: +22* 01'
Magnitude: 8.4
Apparent dimension: 6x4 arc min
Distance: 6,300 light years away
Overall luminosity: 100,000x that of the Sun RA: 03 h 47 min
Dec: +24* 07 min
Distance: 440 light years away
Visual brightness: 1.6 magnitude
Apparent dimension: 110.0 arc min
Age: 100 million years old There are at least 500 stars in the cluster, and between 6-over a dozen are visible to the naked eye.
In 1579, Kepler observed up to 14.
Mentioned by Homer in 750 BC

The stars are spread out over 2* field (which is about 4x the diameter of the Moon)
Their densities are low, therefor they will drift apart from one another along their orbital paths over the next 250 million years.

There are White Dwarfs & Brown Dwarfs. The Pleiades nebulae is a reflection nebulae that is blue-colored. It reflects the light of the bright stars within it.
Merope has the brightest nebula around it. Also, Maia, Alcyone, Electra, Celaeno, and Taygeta have nebulae.
The spectra of the nebulae are exact copies of the spectra of the stars illuminating them. Atlas Pleione Alcyone Asterope Maia Merope Taygeta Celaeno Electra (Kronberg, 2009) Melotte 25 Hyades Star Cluster RA: 4 h 27 min
Dec: +16*
Distance: 150 light years away
Visual brightness: 0.5 magnitude
Apparent dimension: 330 arc min The central stars are 10 light years in diameter while the outerlying stars stretch to 80 light years in diameter.
The Hyades star cluster is approxamately 790 million years old, and is thought to have originated in the Praespe star cluster M44. Aldebaran (Kronberg, 2001) Image: (Kronberg, 2001) Image: (Kronberg, 2009) Meteor Showers: Taurids - from 10/5 --> 12/2
average 7/hour Beta Taurids - from
6/5 --> 7/18
average 25/hour
seen in in the daylight Aldebaran - alpha Tauri
Al Nath - beta Tauri
Hyadum I - gamma Tauri
Hyadum II - delta 1 Tauri
Ain - epsilon Tauri Alcyone - eta Tauri
Celaeno - 16 Tauri
Electra - 17 Tauri
Taygeta - 19 Tauri
Maia - 20 Tauri
Asterope - 21 Tauri
Sterope II - 22 Tauri
Merope - 23 Tauri
Atlas - 27 Tauri
Pleione - 28 Tauri Hyades Star Cluster Pleiades Star Cluster Aldebaran - The Eye of Taurus RA: 4 h 35 min 55.2 sec
Dec: +16* 30' 33.5"
Spectral: K5 III
Magnitude: 0.85 (1st)
Temperature: 4010 Kelvin luminosity: 425x Sol
radius: 43x Sol
rotation: 5.2 km/second = 400 days (Kaler, 2009) Al Nath RA: 5 h 26 min 17.5 sec
Dec: +28* 36' 27"
Spectral: B7 III
Magnitude: 1.65 (2nd)
Temperature: 13,600 Kelvin Luminosity: 700x Sol
Distance: 130 light years away
Class B Giant
24th brightest star in the sky (Kaler) Hyadum I RA: 4 h 19 min 47.6 sec
Dec: +15* 37' 39"
Spectral: K0-III abCN1
Magnitude: 3.65 (4th)
Temperature: 4970 Kelvin Radius: 12x Sol
Rotation: 1.7 km/second = 150 days
Distance: 154 light years away
Class K Orange Giant
Surrounding magnetically active layer (Corona) from excited x-ray emissions (Kaler, 2007) Hyadum II RA: 4 h 22 min 56.1 sec
Dec: +17* 32' 33"
Spectral: K0-IIICN0.5
Magnitude: 3.76 (4th)
Temperature: 4965 Kelvin Luminosity: 74x Sol
Radius: 11.6x Sol
Mass: 2.6x Sol
Rotation: 1.2 km/second = 488 days
Distance: 153 light years away
Class K Orange Giant (Kaler) Ain - 2nd Eye of the Bull RA: 4 h 28 min 37 sec
Dec: +19* 10' 49"
Spectral: G9.5 III CN0.5
Magnitude: 3.53 (4th)
Temperature: 4925 Kelvin Luminosity: 90x Sol
Distance: 155 light years away
Mass: 13x Sol
Class K Orange Giant
Brightest star in Hyades Cluster (Kaler) -Most massive star to have a planet
-1st star found in an open cluster with a planet
Planet is
7.6x more massive than Jupiter
595 day orbital period
15% eccentricity Alcyone RA: 3 h 47 min 29.1 sec
Dec: +24* 06' 18"
Spectral: B7IIIe
Magnitude: 2.87 (3rd)
Temperature: 13000 Kelvin
Brightest star in Pleiades Luminosity: 2400x Sol
Radius: 10x Sol
Mass: 6x Sol
Distance: 430 light years away
Rotation: 215 km/second = >2.3 days
Class B7 Giant
B-emission star (Kaler, 2007) Celaeno - "Lost Pleiad?" RA: 3 h 44 min 48.2 sec
Dec: +24* 17' 22"
Spectral: B7 IV
Magnitude: 5.46 (6th)
Temperature: 13,200 Kelvin Luminosity: 240x Sol
Radius: 3x Sol
Mass: 3.7x Sol
Rotation: 185 km/second = 19 hours (Kaler) Electra RA: 3 h 44 min 52.5 sec
Dec: +24* 06' 48"
Spectral: B6 III
Magnitude: 3.70 (4th)
Temperature: 14,000 Kelvin Luminosity: 1225x Sol
Radius: 6x Sol
Mass: 5x Sol
Distance: 370 light years away
Rotation: 170 km/second = 1 3/4 days
Blue-white (Kaler) Taygeta RA: 3 h 45 min 12.5 sec
Dec: +24* 28' 02"
Spectral: B6 IV
Magnitude: 4.30 (4th)
Temperature: 13,400 Kelvin Luminosity: 750x Sol
Radius: 4.5x Sol
Mass: 7.7x Sol
Rotation: 133 km/second = 1.7 days
B6 Subgiant
6th Brightest among Pleiades (Kaler) Maia RA: 3 h 45 min 49.6 sec
Dec: +24* 22' 04"
Spectral: B8 III
Magnitude: 3.87 (3rd)
Temperature: 12,600 Kelvin Luminosity: 600x Sol
Radius: 5.5x Sol
Mass: 4x Sol
Distance: 385 light years away
Blue-white Class B8 Giant
Mercury-manganese (Kaler) Asterope RA: 3 h 45 min 54.4 sec
Dec: +24* 33' 17"
Spectral: B8V
Magnitude: 5.76 Class B8 Dwarf
- fully fusing hydrogen in core
has not yet begun to evolve (Dolan, 2010) Sterope II RA: 3 h 46 min 2.9 sec
Dec: +24* 31' 41"
Spectral: A0VN
Magnitude: 6.43 (Dolan, 2010) Merope RA: 3 h 46 min 19.6 sec
Dec: +23* 56' 54"
Spectral: B6 IVe
Magnitude: 4.18 (4th)
Temperature: 14,000 Kelvin Luminosity: 630x Sol
Mass: 4.3x Sol
Rotation: 280 km/second = 18 hours
dense & hot
"Merope Nebula"
100 million years old
beginning to evolve (Kaler) Atlas - Father of The Seven Sisters RA: 3 h 49 min 9.7 sec
Dec: +24* 3' 12"
Spectral: B8 III
Magnitude: 3.63
Temperature: 12,300 Kelvin Luminosity: 940x Sol
Mass: 5x Sol
Rotation: 212 km/second = >1.5 days
mild B-emission (Kaler, 2009) Pleione - Mortal Mother of the Seven Sisters RA: 3 h 49 min 11.2 sec
Dec: +24* 08' 12"
Spectral: B8Vpe
Magnitude: 5.09 (5th)
Temperature: 12,000 Kelvin Luminosity: 190x Sol
Radius: 3.2x Sol
Rotation: 329 km/second = under 1/2 day
Distance: 385 light years away
Coolest star of Pleiades (Kaler) http://domeofthesky.com/clicks/aldebaran.html Scientists believe that some organic material found on Earth may have been brought over from areas within Taurus via comets (Clavin, 2004). CoKu Tau 4, a star within Taurus is only 1 million years old. The youngest planet has been discovered orbiting CoKu Tau 4 (Clavin, 2004). (Dolan, 2010)
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