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Transcript of Information Processing
View of Knowledge/Learning
How do we take in information? How do we take that knowledge from short term to long term memory?
Role of the Teacher
Information is taken from the short-term memory to long-term memory through
World Knowledge (Past Experiences)
Theory is based on the idea that humans process the information they receive, rather than merely responding to stimuli.
Equates mind to a computer, which is responsible for analyzing information from the environment.
John Anderson - ACT-R: Adaptive Character of Thought - Rational
Jerome Bruner - Three modes of representation: Enactive, Iconic, Symbolic
David Ausubel - Advance organizers: Comparative and Expository
Robert Gagne - Conditions of learning
Hilda Taba - The Taba approach
William Gordon - Synectics learning models
Craik & Lockhart - Levels of processing: Shallow processing and deep processing
Guide Students toward more "accurate" and complete knowledge.
Teach and model effective strategies.
Steps in the Concept Attainment Model
Step 1: Select and define a concept through the
concept's essential characteristics.
Step 2: Develop positive and negative examples.
Step 3: Review the concept attainment process with the class.
Step 4: Present the examples.
Step 5: Generate hypotheses and continue example/hypothesis cycle.
Concept Development Model
Step 1: List as many items as possible that
are associated with the subject.
Step 2: Group the items because they are
alike in some way.
Step 3: Label the groups by defining reason
for the grouping.
Step 4: Regroup or subsume individual items
or whole groups under other groups.
Step 5: Synthesize the information by
summarizing the data and forming
Research shows how individuals categorize data and attain concepts.
Educators use this research in teaching concepts to learners.
Categorizing reduces the world's complexity, allowing us to label objects in the world.
Role of Students
Limited Attention Resources
Gordon: The synectics model
Craik and Lockhart:
The Teaching Channel. (2013). Reasoning About Division. Available from https://www.teachingchannel.org/videos/common-core-teaching-division
Craik and Lockhart
ACT- R: Adaptive Character of Thought - Rational
Models how humans recall "chunks" of information
Strives to understand how people organize knowledge and produce intelligent behavior
Captures the way we perceive, think about, and act on the world
Human knowledge can be divided into two kinds of representations: declarative and procedural
Declarative knowledge represented in the form of "chunks"
Procedural knowledge represented in the form of productions
Three modes of representation: Enactive, Iconic, and Symbolic
Action based. Occurs between 0-1 years.
Involves encoding action based information and storing it in our memory
Child represents past events through motor responses
Adults can perform a variety of motor tasks that are difficult to describe in other modes of representation
Image based. Occurs between 1-6 years.
Where information is stored visually in the form of images.
May explain why diagrams and illustrations are helpful when learning a new subject
Language based. Occurs from age 7 onward
Last to develop.
Where information is stored in the form of a code or symbol, ex. language.
Information presented by an instructor that helps the student organize new incoming information
Make it easier to learn new and difficult material provided two conditions are met:
The student must process and understand the information presented in the organizer
The organizer must indicate the relations among the basic concepts and terms that will be used
Two types of advance organizer
Conditions of Learning
Three main elements
Taxonomy or classification of learning outcomes
Internal and external factors necessary to achieving learning outcomes
Nine events of instruction
Informing learners of the objective
Stimulating recall of prior learning
Presenting the stimulus
Providing learning guidance
Enhancing retention and transfer
Believed teachers should be involved in the design of curricula
Educators must first identify the student's needs for the development of the curriculum
Objectives should be specific
The content matches the objectives, and demonstrates validity
Curriculum content is designed based on student's interest, development, and achievement
Instructional methods are selected by teachers
The organization of the learning activities is determined by the teacher
Evaluation procedures are determined by students and teachers
Synectics learning model
Problem solving methodology that stimulates thought processes of which the subject may be unaware
Has three main assumptions:
The creative process can be described and taught
Invention processes in arts and sciences are analogous and are driven by the same "psychic" processes
Individual and group creativity are analogous
Levels of processing model
Concentrates on the process involved in memory
Can process information in three ways:
ROLE OF THE TEACHER
Example or Nonexample?
Recipient of information
Students need to...
Connect new information to prior knowledge
Use coding when memorizing information
Benefits for Students
Automation of basic skills
Allocate limited resources
Frees limited resources
Big Ideas/ Assessment/ Applications