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William Howard Taft

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on 18 April 2014

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Transcript of William Howard Taft

William Howard Taft
The Rise to Progressivism
The
Muckrakers
were crusaders for Progressivism.
They were journalists who exposed social, economic, corruption, and political injustices.
The
Social Gospe
l developed which stressed the social teachings of Christianity and the applicability to public life.
Hands off individualism
became too out of place in the modern machine age, and problems were becoming too complex for Jeffersonian aspects of government.
Theodore Roosevelt
was popular during the Progressive era. Roosevelt sought out Taft as a successor because he thought that he was a man who would carry out Roosevelt's policies.
During Taft's Presidency his foreign policy was referred to as "Dollar Diplomacy"
Taft wanted to expand US interest and influence abroad
The plan encouraged US banks/businesses to make investments in foreign locales
The Mann-Elkins Act was passed-
Placed companies that were forms of communication (telephone, telegraph, radio, cable service, etc.) under the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC)
The Publicity Act required political parties to account for the money spent on federal campaigns
Congress passed the 16th and 17th amendments
16th Amendment allowed Congress to levy an income tax
17th Amendment allowed for the direct election of United States Senators
Workman's Compensation laws were created
Taft's administration passed the Parcel Post Reforms
Progressive Legislature Acts and Laws
The Mann Act (1910)
- Prohibited interstate transportation of women for immoral purposes.
The 16th Amendment(1913)
- Authorized federal income taxes.
The 17th Amendment(1913)
- States that the state would directly elect their senators.
Major Supreme Court Cases
1909
- Moyer v. Peabody

1910
- Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States

1911
- Bailey v. Alabama

1911
- Flint v. Stone Tracy Co.

1911
- United States v. Grimaud

1913
- Hoke v. United States

Measures Taken by the National Government to Affect Change in the Progressive Era
Uncle Sam makes fun of Taft's girth as he tries to fit into Roosevelt's old rough rider's uniform, it is meant to show how Taft isn't Roosevelt, and isn't suited to the presidency, much less being able to fulfill the office left behind by Roosevelt. A criticism that Taft was attempting to mimic Roosevelt's political positions to gain the presidency.
After Taft's Presidency he served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court where he
Reduced the back log of the Supreme Court
Got the Court to look at cases involving property rights and governmental limitation in a more conservative manner
Was Instrumental in getting the Judicial Act of 1925 passed
Allowed Justices more control when choosing which cases to hear
Lobbied for Congress to pass laws to strengthen the courts power
Voted for the far reaching program of minimum wage
Measures Taken by the National Government During the Progressive Era (Cont.)
This cartoon reflects criticisms that the new president was too involved in his social life, particularly sports and travel, and not attentive enough to his presidential duties. Uncle Sam commands that Taft write his first annual message to Congress, due in December, while the distracted president contemplates a golf ball. Attired in golfing gear, Taft’s sport coat is stuffed with menus, symbolizing the 300-pound president’s avid interest in food; “notes,” “data,” and “evidence,” implying an overcautious reliance on information-gathering at the expense of decision-making; and references to his recent speaking tour through the West and South.
Political Cartoons
William Howard Taft: A Presidential Minute
Illustrates Taft ignoring his wishes to join the supreme court, in favor of Roosevelt wanting him to run for the presidency.
Named head of the Forest Service in 1898, Gifford Pinchot was instrumental in defining and implementing conservation policies under Roosevelt, which included the scientific management of the nations forests as well as developing the commercial value of public lands. To realize his visions, Pinchot relied on a network of cooperative government agencies. He enjoyed a close relationship with Roosevelt and the President's support for scientific forestry. However, the election of Taft in 1908 threatened to undermine Pinchot’s work under Roosevelt. Pinchot no longer enjoyed a close personal relationship with the incumbent President. Worse, for Pinchot's viewpoint, in 1909, Taft convinced former Commissioner of the General Land Office, Richard Ballinger, to become Secretary of the Department of the Interior. Ballinger, unsympathetic to Pinchot’s views, deemed some of Pinchot’s cooperative agreements illegal and favored private development of lands over withdrawing sites for public programs.
The Parcel Post Reforms Square Unit of Area Recommended as Best
was written by George P. Hampton. The newspaper article was published in the New York Times, April 17th, 1913. This article basically calls for a more organized parcel post delivery, and the areas of zones where mail is delivered be increased. The article points out errors in the current parcel post law, and brings light to the positive changes that are to come.
Progressive Literature
1909-1913
Taft the Trust-buster
Gained popularity as a smasher of monopolies.
Brought 90 suits against trusts during his 4 years in office.
In the year 1911, the Supreme Court ordered the dissolution of the Standard Oil Company.
The Court's "Rule of Reason" stated that combinations that unreasonably restrained trade were illegal.
When Taft pressed an antitrust suit against the U.S. Steel Corporation Roosevelt was furious, and the once protegé became an antagonist.
Taft Split the Republican Party
The Promise of American Life was a book published by Herbert Croly that severely opposed unionization and was considered ‘a manifesto on Progressive beliefs.’ The book argued that the traditional American idea of individual freedom had resulted in unequal distribution of wealth.
Progressives wanted to lower the barrier of the formidable protective tariff.
Taft called congress into a special session in March 1909.
Taft signed the Payne-Aldrich Bill.
This betrayed his campaign promise and outraged the Progressives.
Taft established the Bureau of Mines to control mineral resources, rescued millions of acres of western coal, and protected water-power sites from development.
These accomplishments were erased from the public's mind because of the Ballinger-Pinot quarrel.
This quarrel was the result of Taft dismissing Gifford Pinchot, the chief of the Agriculture Department of Forestry. He was dismissed on grounds of insubordination.
Protest arose from conservationists and from Roosevelt's friend. The reformists wing of the Republican party was up in arms.
By 1910 the 'Grand Old Party" was split a large part in thanks to Taft's clumsiness.
The Republicans were weakened by the split, and lost badly in congressional elections of 1910.
Timeline:
1909-1913:
Taft's Dollar Diplomacy
1909:
Taft's Inauguration
Payne-Aldrich Tariff Passed
The Promise of American Life was published
Moyer vs Peabody
1910:
Mann-Elkins Act Passed
The Publicity Act Passed
Standard Oil Co of New Jersey vs United States
1912:
The Federal Children's Bureau Created
1913:
Parcel Post Reforms Passed
16th Amendment Ratified
17th Amendment Ratified
Hoke vs United States
1921:
Taft was Appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Harding
1911:
Bailey vs Alabama
Flint vs Stone Tracy Co
United States vs Grimaud
Full transcript