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CINEMA

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on 18 September 2014

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Transcript of CINEMA

What is cinema?
Cinema Elements
Human Team
It is formed by the director, producer, screenwriter, actors and musical director. Each has a different and essential function.

Cinematographic Formats
The classification of any film is based on its length, so, in the whole duration of the film:
Shortfilm(projection time less 15 minutes)
Medium-length film (longer than 15 minutes and less than an hour)
Full-length film (longer than an hour)
Shortfilms
History of Cinema
Officially born in 1895 when the Lumière brothers showed at a public meeting their first films. During this initial period films were always about everyday topics . It was the magic and the imagination of Georges Méliès that saved the cinema from ending up like just another invention of the time, turning into the creator science fiction. In the beginning of the 20th century, cinema was turned into industry, and began to expand all around the world. It became more popular in 1927 with the introduction of sound, and colour in 1935. From this moment on, new elements and techniques were introduced.
Cinema Awards
Cinematographic Genres
Documental Genre
Cinematographic Genres
Adventure Genre
This genre is the one for creating cartoons or action figures that will be the protagonists; this type of genre is basically for young audiences because they are stories based on animated, cheerful and funny imagined characters full of feelings.
Animation Genre
Tangled
Cinematographic Genres
Musical Genre
Cinematographic Genres
War Genre
It is a communication media, which consists in obtaining in a film, photographs of the moments of action and projecting them onto a screen to create movement. It is considered the seventh art.
A cinematographer is a machine capable of filming and projecting moving images. It was the first machine capable of rolling and projecting motion pictures.
The cinematographer
The cinematographer was invented by the Lumière Brothers.
The Shooting
Based on the script, the costs of the shot, can be organized and calculated. Whether it costs millions or just thousands of euros, the work routine for a film idea is the same. The audio and video material that is produced must be shot within budget of the film costs.
It is the manipulation of scenes shot, placed in a continious and alternate manner. In editing, the copies of the scenes are cut and put together to form a narrative continuity. To these the dialogue, music and sound effects are added. The final quality of a film is largely determined by the execution of a good editing.
Editing
Illumination
Script
It is the working plan of the shooting on paper and acquires the format of a detailed story. It describes sequences, image content, sound and dialogue meticulously to get a perfect production.
Allows to create with light, the necessary atmosphere of the film. This will require lamps and reflection screens that are necessary even when filming outside to reduce shade.
The soundtrack should be designed for a young audience maintaining the basic elements such as rhythm, a clear and easy to understand melody.
It is a cinematographic genre characterized by films that contains disruptions in their development to incorporate a piece of music accompanied by singing or choreography.
This is the supreme genre of music that has left a significant mark on lovers of film music over the decades. Musical films have provided melodies full of beauty, pomp and artistic flair.
It is a cinematographic genre that reflects a world of heroic battles and adventures. Usually the action and the chivalrous values predominate.
On the soundtrack, the music perfectly accompanies each thrilling sequence that occurs, and keeps the viewer constantly guessing.
Action genre
It is a cinematographic genre in which the spectacular images prevail by means of special effects. It usually involves a moral interplay between "good" and "bad" brought to an end by violence or physical force. Action items are: chases, shootouts, fights, explosions, robberies, assaults.
Epic Genre
Epic films are generally great dramatic productions, containing adventures, usually set in war or conflict.
In this genre the soundtrack has introduced new digitalized sounds and special effects for dramatic character.
The award is a golden statue of a naked man holding a sword that awaits standing on a reel of film with five spokes. Each spoke represents one of the five original branches of the Academy: actors, writers, directors, producers and technicians.
Oscars Awards
Oscar Awards of the Academy of Arts and Cinematographic Sciences in Hollywood.
Goya Awards
The Goya Awards are granted by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences of Spain, with the aim of recognizing the best work of the year. The award consists of a bust of Francisco de Goya in bronze.
Awards are given in the following categories: picture and director; Actor and Leading Actress, sharing and disclosure; New Director; original and adapted screenplay; documentary; animated film, European and foreign language; Goya of Honor; production management; music and original song; art direction; costume design; photography; assembly; hair and makeup; sound; special effects and short fiction.
Golden Globes Awards
The Golden Globes awards are granted by the Foreign Press Association in Hollywood, for the best films and television.
They are the most important prelude to the Oscars, and as for film prizes are awarded in the following categories: best film, actor and actress in drama; Best film, actor and actress in a comedy or musical; animated and foreign language; actress and actor; director, screenwriter, music, song ...
Cinematogra-phic Genres
Religious Genre
In this genre the movies with religious themes are grouped.
Catastrophic Genre
The main theme is a current or imminent disaster for the human race, major fires, shipwrecks, or a hypothetical asteroid collision with Earth.
Western Genre
It focuses on the walks to the western plains and transport the viewer and the character to the 60s.
History Gender
The story centers around a real event that has occurred and usually has moral intent.
This genre is set in battlefields and wartime.
In these genres, soundtracks reflect the historical moment, in a tone that immediately identifies the viewer with a particular period.
Biography Genre
This type of film relates the biographical aspects of a historical figure.
Police and Gangster Genre
This genre is about crime and is often related to gangster movies and black films (murder)
This film has organized crime as its main theme.
Terror and Thriller Genre
Terror
Are made with the intention of producing fear in the audience.
It is the soundtrack of suspense and action, so that we approach the 'climax' the music goes 'crescendo' until reaching its climax.
Thriller
The soundtrack should cause curiosity and the expectation attracts viewers and they want to know what will happen.
The film intends to cause tension in the audience.
Police
Ganster
This genre is characterized by developing an item explaining it and showing different forms of reality.
What is cinema?
The cinematographer
Elements of cinema
Film formats
History of cinema
Awards in film
Film genres
History of Cinema
Cinematographic Terms

Cinematographic Genres
Romantic
Genre
This genre emphasizes the loving and romantic elements based on the pure expression of feeling like love.
The soundtrack is written with a certain 'sweetness', a tone and a melodic rhythm that inspires pleasure.
Drama Genre
Cinematographic Genres
Science-Fiction Genre
It uses science-based depictions of imaginary phenomena such as aliens, alien planets and time travel, often along with technological elements such as futuristic spacecraft, robots and other technologies.
The soundtrack takes the viewer into an imaginary world of adventures that make you part of the story.
Fantastic Genre
This type of film contains fantastic facts and fantastic creatures.
Comedy
In the cinematographic comedy the tone and climate are created based on an idea developed through details. It is characterized by the art of making people laugh creating exaggerated and careless situations that are pleasing to the public.
Shooting of Casablanca
The purpose of the soundtrack is to entertain as in the case of 'The Pink Panther'.
Movies which mainly focus on the development of a conflict between the protagonists or the protagonists with their environment or with themselves. Regularly through the emotions projected it aims to take the viewer to tears or reflection.
They are usually very elaborate works with great orchestration, symphony and melancholy in some musical notes. They emphasize the maximum expression of emotion.
The cinematographic genre is the general theme of a film that serves for its classification.
When we talk about genre in the film media, we are referring to stable thematic categories, subjected to an encoding that respect the filmmakers and the viewers know. They are:

HOW IT ALL BEGAN
It all started in France in 1895 with films like this from the pioneering Lumiere Brothers
1903
1905
1911
CINEMA IS HERE TO STAY
By the 1920s almost all of the main types of film had been invented - comedies, horror, epics, action films, westerns , dramas and romances with heroes like this
And sci-fi fantasies with special effects like this 1902 film from french pioneer George Melies
SOUND
In 1927 a singer called Al Jolson put on black face paint (these were unenlightened times) to star in the first ever 'talkie' film and sing this song
All American films have sound by 1929!
THE GOLDEN AGE
The all-conquering HOLLYWOOD took over the world throughout the 1930s and 40s. Films - often made by European immigrant directors - got BIGGER, LOUDER, MORE STAR STUDDIED as millions flocked into the magnificent PICTURE PALACES.
COLOUR
In 1947 only 12 per cent of American films in colour by 1954
50 per cent in colour
HOW IT ALL CHANGED
Cinema was doing great but then along came this...
THE FIGHT BACK
Films got BIGGER, LOUDER and much, much WIDER
Cinematographic Terms
Specialized Language
In order to discuss Cinema, we must become familiar with the specialized language used in Film Studies.

Basic Terms
Editing: The joining together of clips of film into a single filmstrip. The cut is a simple edit but there are many other possible ways to transition from one shot to another.

Flashback/Flashforward: A jump backwards or forwards in time. With the use of flashback / flashforward the order of events in the plot no longer matches the order of events in the story.
Focus
Focus refers to the degree to which light rays pass through the lens and reconverge on a frame of the film negative, creating sharp outlines and distinct textures that match the original object.
This optical property of the cinema creates variations in
depth of field
-- through
shallow focus
,
deep focus
, and techniques such as
racking focus
.
Shallow focus is a function of a narrow depth of field and it implies that only one plane of the frame will remain sharp and clear (usually the foreground).
Shallow Focus
Deep focus, which requires a small aperture and lots of light, means that the foreground, middleground and background of the frame remain in focus.
Deep Focus
Genres: Types of film recognized by audiences and/or producers.
These types are distinguished by narrative or stylistic conventions.


Mis-en-Scene: All the things that are "put in the scene": the setting, the decor, the lighting, the costumes, the performance etc. Narrative films often manipulate the elements of mise-en-scene, such as decor, costume, and acting to intensify or undermine the ostensible significance of a particular scene.
Scene/ Sequence: A segment of a narrative film that usually takes place in a single time and place, often with the same characters. Sometimes a single scene may contain two lines of action, occurring in different spaces or even different times, that are related by means of crosscutting.
The latter term can also refer to a longer segment of film that does not obey the spatial and temporal unities of a single scene. For example, a montage sequence that shows in a few shots a process that occurs over a period of time.
Shot: A single stream of images, uninterrupted by editing. The shot can use a static or a mobile framing, a standard or a non-standard frame rate, but it must be continuous. With the use of computer graphics and sequences built-up from a series of still frames, the boundaries of the shot are increasingly being challenged.
Techniques
Racking Focus
Filmmakers can change the focus of the lens to a subject in the background from the foreground or vice vera. This can be used to shift the audience’s attention or to point out a significant relationship between the two subjects.
Zoom Shot
The zoom shot occurs when a filmmaker changes the focal length of the lens in the middle of a shot. We appear to get closer or further away from the subject when this technique is used.
Rate
The standard rate for a film is 24 frames per second. If more frames are added to this second the film will seem to slow down. The film will speed up if there are less than 24 frames per second.
Scale
Extreme Long Shot
An extreme long shot is when the scale of what is being seen is tiny.
Medium Close Up
A medium close-up is when what is being viewed is large and takes up most of the screen.
Close Up
A close-up is when what is being viewed is quite large and takes up the entire screen, such as a person’s head.
Extreme Close Up
An extreme close-up is when what is being viewed is very large; usually, this is a part of someone’s face.
Long Shot
A long shot is when the scale of what is being seen is small. In this sequence from Kathryn Bigelow’s The Hurt Locker (2008), Sergeant Thompson (Guy Pearce) takes up most of the screen when upright, and then less when he is knocked down due to the explosion.
Medium Long Shot
A medium long shot is when what is being viewed takes up almost the entire height of the screen.
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