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Energy

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by

Belini Cas

on 9 January 2015

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Transcript of Energy

Energy
There are many forms of energy
kinetic
Sound
Heat
Light
electrical
Potential
Gravitational
Chemical energy
Strain (elastic)
Energy that is stored, (can be used later)
energy you have
because you are high up
energy that is stored in chemicals that can react
food
fossil fuels
battery
an object that can stretch
the unit for energy is the Joule
Find examples for these types of energy.

Take a picture and stick it into your book.

Explain your reasons for choosing this picture

You can use the same picture for a different energies

Try and use as few pictures as possible to include all the energies
One of the most important forms of energy is electrical energy.
When things happen an energy change takes place.
Energy makes things happen!
10.1b Electrical energy
kinetic (movement) energy
heat energy
sound energy
light energy
Electrical energy can change to ...
10.1b Electrical energy
chemical energy stored in batteries
light energy in solar cells
kinetic energy in dynamos
chemical energy in the fossil fuels used in power stations
Electrical energy comes from ...
10.1b Electrical energy
light energy (or sound, movement or heat energy)
electrical energy
stored chemical energy
... which we can then use in our homes.
... which is transmitted through cables ...
Most power stations use fossil fuels to make electricity ...
Electrical energy helps move energy from one place to another
10.1b Electrical energy
chemical energy
There are chemicals inside each of the batteries.
Example: a torch
10.1b Electrical energy
chemical energy electrical energy light energy
When the torch is switched on, energy from the batteries is carried round an electrical circuit and lights up the bulb.
Example: a torch
10.1b Electrical energy
work through the circus of activities in your groups

write down the
energy transfers
Energy transfers
1.Choose
examples of
potential
energy

2. State which type

3.Describe why you
think so
Energy cannot be
created or
destroyed
Energy that goes into
and object must come
out of it
sometimes energy
is wasted, but this
means it is changed
into a type of energy
that is not useful
lets look at the energy in food
Foods contain
Carbohydrates that
burn to give off energy
put the activities in order
of those requiring most
energy
Jogging needs:
3000 kJ per hour
Walking needs:
1000 kJ per hour
Sleeping needs:
300 kJ per hour
Energy needed for different activities
10.2 Measuring energy
the unit of
energy is Joules
you can see how much
energy is in foods
by reading the label
Plan an investigation
Rubric
Over millions of years, they were buried deeper by the mud and sand. The temperature and pressure (caused by the weight of the sediments and deep burial) changed the mud and sand into rock and the dead animals into crude oil and natural gas.
Oil and gas are also biological in origin. Millions of years ago tiny animals lived in the sea. Like today, their ecosystem was dependent on heat and light from the Sun and photosynthesis by plants. When they died they fell into mud and sand at the bottom of the sea but did not rot away.
How?
All of our food energy comes from the Sun
10.3 Energy from the Sun
chemical (stored) energy (inside the animal)
chemical (stored) energy (in the plant)
light energy (from the sun)
... giving us this food chain.
... and we eat things that grow as a result of sunshine ...
Animals, such as humans, need to eat to live, grow and reproduce ...
10.3 Energy from the Sun
Over the years, the mud piled up and squashed the plant remains.

After millions of years under this pressure, the mud became rock and the dead plants became coal.
Dead plants fell into swampy water and the mud prevented them from rotting away.
About 300 million years ago, trees and other plants photosynthesized and stored the Sun’s energy.
Oil, coal and natural gas are examples of fossil fuels. They were formed from biological deposits over the course of millions of years.
natural gas
coal
oil
There is a finite amount of fossil fuels on the Earth and they will eventually run out.
Once fossil fuels are used they cannot be regenerated and used again, so they are called non-renewable.
So if we eat vegetables or meat, we can say that ...

... all of our food energy has come from the Sun
Sometimes we eat things that eat things that grow
10.3 Energy from the Sun
Over millions of years, they were buried deeper by the mud and sand. The temperature and pressure (caused by the weight of the sediments and deep burial) changed the mud and sand into rock and the dead animals into crude oil and natural gas.
Oil and gas are also biological in origin. Millions of years ago tiny animals lived in the sea. Like today, their ecosystem was dependent on heat and light from the Sun and photosynthesis by plants. When they died they fell into mud and sand at the bottom of the sea but did not rot away.
How?
All of our food energy comes from the Sun
10.3 Energy from the Sun
Over the years, the mud piled up and squashed the plant remains.

After millions of years under this pressure,
the mud became rock and the dead plants became coal.
Dead plants fell into swampy water and the mud prevented them from rotting away.
About 300 million years ago, trees and other
plants photosynthesized and stored the Sun’s energy.
Oil, coal and natural gas are examples of fossil fuels.
They were formed from biological deposits over the course of millions of years.
oil
coal
natural gas
There is a finite amount of fossil fuels on the Earth and they will eventually run out. Once fossil fuels are used they cannot be regenerated and used again, so they are called non-renewable.
chemical (stored) energy (inside the animal)
chemical (stored) energy (in the plant)
light energy (from the sun)
... giving us this food chain.
... and we eat things that grow as a result of sunshine ...
Animals, such as humans, need to eat to live, grow and reproduce ...
10.3 Energy from the Sun
Sometimes we eat things that eat things that grow
10.3 Energy from the Sun
Natural gas was found underground with or near oil.

Eventually huge pipelines were built to move this across seas and continents and it replaced coal gas.
Natural gas
10.5 Energy supplies
When coal was mined in large quantities we could:
Make large quantities of iron and steel
Mine coal from deeper in the ground
Improve transport with iron railways and iron ships that used steam power
Make coal gas to power lights and cooking stoves
Heat houses better
And then there was KING COAL!
10.5 Energy supplies
...horses for transport (riding, pulling carts, etc)...
Up until the mid-1700s people relied on...
10.5 Energy supplies
...wind to power windmills...
Up until the mid-1700s people relied on...
10.5 Energy supplies
...water to power waterwheels...
Up until the mid-1700s people relied on...
10.5 Energy supplies
Coal, oil and gas are burnt in power stations to turn water into steam, which turns turbines and generate electricity.
..making electricity.
And one of the most important uses of coal, oil and gas now is..
What came next?
10.5 Energy supplies
When we found out how to refine crude oil into
petrol
diesel
special fuel oils (like aircraft fuel)
steam engines gave way to lorries and cars.

Aeroplanes were invented and used these light powerful fuels.
And then there was OIL!
10.5 Energy supplies
The candles were made of animal fat and the lamps used whale oil - they were all a bit smelly!
...candles and oil lamps for lighting.
Up until the mid-1700s people relied on...
10.5 Energy supplies
...wood for heating and cooking...
Up until the mid-1700s people relied on...
10.5 Energy supplies
Haven't we seen something like this on one of the
earlier slides?
water power
wind turbines
So the world is now looking seriously at renewable energy sources like:
Renewable energy
10.5 Energy supplies
They aren’t making it any more!
Coal, oil and gas are known as non-renewable resources - we cannot renew them. Once they have
run out, they are gone.
One problem is that they don’t last for ever.
When the last drop of oil comes from the ground...
...and the last bucket of coal comes from a mine……
...what are we going to do?
But fossil fuels have some major problems.
10.5 Energy supplies
There are other forms of renewable energy, but you will be concentrating on the ones in this presentation.
10.5 Renewable energy
Solar panels convert light energy directly into electricity. This
can be on a small scale, such as running a calculator, or on a large scale to supply a building.
Solar power
10.5 Renewable energy
The kinetic (movement) energy of the wind turns the turbine blades. The moving blades turn a generator, which generates electricity (like a bike dynamo). Wind generators can be on land or in the sea just offshore.
Wind energy
10.5 Renewable energy
Biomass is anything that is grown, such as straw, or produced by animals, like dung. It can be burned instead of fossil fuels and produces less carbon dioxide. More biomass can be produced easily.
Biomass
10.5 Renewable energy
The movement of waves out at sea can be used to generate electricity.
At the moment this is used for generating enough power for a flashing light on a buoy to warn ships of danger. But there are experiments going on to find out how to use power to make larger quantities of electricity for use on land.
Wave energy
10.5 Renewable energy
Tides flowing in and out of narrow spaces such as rivers could also be used to generate electricity.
The gates are opened to allow the tide in and then closed to trap the water.
This is then released in one big flow to turn the turbines and generate electricity.
Tidal energy is not being used yet but being planned.
Tidal energy
10.5 Renewable energy
Water is collected in a dam high up a mountain.
When the water is released downhill its kinetic
energy turns a turbine below. The turbine turns a generator and electricity is generated.
Hydroelectricity
10.5 Renewable energy
Let's look at some renewable energy forms in a little more detail...
10.5 Renewable energy
they are
running out
Spark
(cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr
why is using
fossil fuels so bad?
Oil
50 years
Natural gas
70 years
Coal
250 years
Burning fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases
which will change the
worlds weather patterns
They also give off Sulphur
which causes
acid rain
renewables
Do Now
Full transcript