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Context on the encyclical "Sollicitudo Rei Socialis" by Pope John Paull II

Calvin John Espino

on 19 September 2012

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Transcript of Imperialism

Group 7 International Division of Labor CONCLUSION " Sollicitudo Rei Socialis Imperialism the creation and/or maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination. (Dictionary of Human Geography) " " A domination of one country OVER another. Karol Józef Wojtyła "Social Concerns" Imperialism is the root cause of social problem

It takes money first from undeveloped countries and secondly of their own developed homeland Two typical structures of sin are:
All-consuming desire for profit/ money

Thirst for power The church is willing to cooperate with people of other religion in the development of the people.
There will always be people who will not work for development. Example is in the case of imperialist country which instead of helping, they rob the wealth of weaker countries God gave the earth and its resources to humanity to cultivate and develop in accordance to his will and to be used for the benefit if all people.
Human being has the obligation to share this habitat with other kind and have a special duty to be stewards and trustees of the Earth. underdeveloped countries are convinced that without the help of wealthy countries, they will not achieve development
status quo is propped up by the richest nations on earth developed countries discriminate against Third World products through protectionism and production of substitutes, hindering the Third world products from being sold in the foreign markets. This is an option, or a special form of primacy in the exercise of Christian charity, to which the whole Tradition of the Church bears witness. It affects the life of each Christian inasmuch as he or she seeks to imitate the life of Christ, but it applies equally to our social responsibilities and hence to our manner of living, and to the logical decisions to be made concerning the ownership and use of goods. Church offers nor technical solutions but “set of principles for reflection, criteria for judgment, and directives for action”

It condemns erroneous politico-economic teachings that lead to the ruin of peoples

It promote teachings that lead to the perfection and happiness of people Solidarity is the losing of self for welfare of all. It sees people not as instruments for one’s own selfish aggrandizement but as shares in the banquet of life given by the Creator.

The exercise of solidarity within each society is valid when its members recognize one another as persons. A Theological Reading of Modern Problems To "have" objects and goods does not in itself perfect the human subject, unless it contributes to the maturing and enrichment of that subject's "being"

Human person, who makes money the god of his heart, becomes a selfish being, who doesn’t hesitate to take advantage of others.

True development must be based on the love of God and neighbor, and must help to promote the relationships between individuals and society. It is not the accumulation of wealth at the expense of the masses. Involves a search for a humanism which will enable everyone to find themselves anew by embracing the higher values of love and friendship, of prayer and contemplation. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis
considers the following: Need for international solidarity today, people talk so often of preserving and promoting the integrity of the earth and its environment
this is a reaction to a “new evil” e.g. typhoon
ecological destruction is also due to:
chemical fertilizers,
herbicides Concern for ecology Authentic Human Development Development and Material Possession Development and the Earth Development and Faith Catholic faith teaches that God destined humanity to a supernatural happiness that is to share a very perfection and happiness with God. Obligation of Everyone Development and Human Rights Development and the Cosmos Rights are essentially ordained to perfection and happiness.
Development presupposes respect for the identity and culture of people. Development and the Cosmos
The encyclical wants nature to be respected, because failure to do this would result to pollution and evils.
When human beings start to disobey laws of creation, humanity is on its way to destruction. “Moral” is connected with what is good and bad, on the other hand, “Theological” implies relationship of things on earth to God.

Theologically, money and power are the gods of the modern capitalist and imperialists’ world. Moral and Theological Dimensions Structures of Sin Solidarity as a means Some Particular Guidelines Church Involvement Not Technical The International Angle Preferential Option for the Poor Growing numbers of poor, in desperate situations, must be a priority in all development plans The low-cost products of certain countries which lack effective labor laws or which are too weak to apply them are sold in other parts of the world at considerable profit for the companies engaged in this form of production, which knows no frontiers.

the First World capitalist put up factories in the Third World then they re-export the processed products to the First World as well as elsewhere producing super-profits.

Third World are not factories that really matter to the progress of the nation, but only the low-tech factories that require unskilled or semi-skilled human labor. Problem in International Trade Sollicitudo Rei Socialis calls on the various people of the world to work together and contribute their share to the task of the development.
John Paul II calls on all: non-Catholic Christians; the Jewish people, the Muslims, and the members of the catholic Church, the laity particularly, who ought to be the examples and guides in the task of liberation and development.  Sollicitudo Rei Socialis gives two reasons why Christians need involve themselves in the development of peoples
First, is the survival of the world. Injustices induce war. And war means destruction.
Second, is the dignity of the human person. The creator has made this law basic and binding to everyone-to love God with all one’s heart and to love the neighbours as oneself. This should be no cause for surprise. In fact, under the circumstances the failure is to be expected. For the rich industrial nations, possessing so much power under their command, will never allow international organizations to go against their imperialistic interest. INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS This regard that the wealth of the world depends to a great extent on intellectual creativity, which is responsible for the creation of new technologies, new machineries, new processes, which in turn cause more and more products and wealth.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) provides that the person accused by a foreign corporation of making use of its technology, is already considered guilty unless the accused could prove otherwise. TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Sollicitudo Rei Socialis now touches on the evils of the world’s “monetary and financial system today recognized as inadequate”. WORLD MONITORY AND FINANCIAL SYSTEM The first is the modern world’s greater consciousness of human dignity and, consequently, of human rights. Not only the individuals, but also of nations. Individuals and nations are keenly aware of their dignity, and are demanding the fulfillment of their sovereign and inalienable rights.

This greater awareness is seen in the proliferation of international and national organizations, founded for the monitoring, defense, and promotion of human rights. The famous international organization of human rights, known to almost everyone is the Amnesty International Sollicitudo Rei Socialis mentions the positive features: Exchange rates in the Philippines have risen progressively through the years. While the dollar rises in value, the peso goes lower and lower, until perhaps one day the peso will collapse and bring the Philippines to disaster.
The lowering of currency is called devaluation.
From 1961-1970—the Philippine government decreed a fixed rate devaluation under IMF pressure.
From 1970 up to present—the government practice a floating exchange rate, also under IMF pressure.
Floating exchange means a day-to-day devaluation.
The international Monetary Fund imposes devaluation or floating exchange rate on Third World countries, because it’s to the advantage of the rich industrial nations. Interest rate is of great relevance to economic progress. It makes a lot of difference to a nation, if the interest rate is high or low, if one kind of products or another are given high or low interest.
In 1979 the government opened a low rediscount rate for non traditional exports.
The higher the rediscounting rates for traditional exports and lower for the non-traditional exports similarly favors the foreign corporations Exchange Rate Interest Rate This kind of thinking, which is the philosophy of WTO, rests on a morally wrong principle, namely that there is such thing as unlimited property right on material things.
God made this world and all the wealth thereof, not for the few owners of multinational corporations but for all the people.
It is against morality that WTO makes policies and regulations that make the wealth of this world fall into the hands 0fa few.
Many inventions of multinational corporations are based on improvements of traditional, centuries-old processes invented by the natives
No country in the world ever became great, without borrowing or copying the inventions of other countries WTO and Technology Third World's Right to Technology International Monetary Fund
World Bank
World Trade Organization
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asian Free Trade Area Sollicitudo Rei Socialis says,

“Development demands above all spirit of initiative on the part of the countries which need it.”

Third World countries are thus urged to initiate their own programs of development, identify their own priorities and recognize their own needs.
Third World countries are under the control of the rich industrial nations.
President Ferdinand Marcos, Corazon Aquino and Fidel Ramos, all signed Memoranda of Agreement with the International Monetary Fund, which ensure foreign big business control of the Philippine economy. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis urges Third World countries to band themselves together and form solidarity relationships, particularly in matters of trade and finance.
The rich industrial nations will not allow Third World countries to form trade agreements among themselves that would stop the immense profits they are getting from previous one-sided agreements. The encyclical states; " The existing Institutions and Organizations have worked well for the benefit of peoples. Organizations responsible for the mechanism mentioned by the Pope; mechanism that suck the wealth of the Third World to the First World. SOLIDARITY AMONG THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES THIRD WORLD PEOPLES INITIATIVE Liberation is to understand as freedom not only from economic ills but from all sin and structures of sin, from everything that degrades the human being.
Liberation aims for the perfection and the happiness of man at all levels, economic, intellectual, moral and religious.
Through solidarity we unite with, and put our resources to, the poor and the oppressed of society, in the goal of achieving prosperity and happiness for all. The church trusts in the promise of God guaranteeing that our world was not ordained to misery, but destined to the share of divine glory.
Human history does not remain closed in unto itself but is open to the Kingdom of God.
The church trusts in the innate goodness of the human being. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis laments the non-involvement of Christians in liberation.
The encyclical complains of so many found wanting, “through fear, indecision, and basically, through cowardice.” GOAL OF LIBERATION POSSIBILITY OF LIBERATION FEAR AND COWARDICE OF MANY REASON FOR INVOLVEMENT Mary was one with Jesus in the goal of liberating the oppressed from clutches of oppression. She was aware, that her Son’s condemnation of the hypocrisies, irreligiosties and injustices of the powers of Israel, had angered the latter to the point of planning his death.
Mary stood for liberation, liberation from the miseries of the earth till all reach the full liberation of the children of God in the afterlife. “The Kingdom of God becomes present above all in the celebration of the Sacrament of the Eucharist, which is the Lord’s sacrifice.”

United with Christ through the Eucharist, the faithful are sent to the world, as witnesses and purveyors of God’s love to establish a kingdom that would be a preparation and anticipation of the coming kingdom in heaven.
According to the Catholic teaching, the Eucharist is a sacrifice, the same as the sacrifice of the Cross, the only difference being in the manner of offering.
The Cross signifies the struggle and death of Jesus for what is good, noble, and just.
The Eucharist is a constant reminder to Christians, that like Christ we have to struggle for what is good and noble.  The God of justice does not forget the good done to the poor. Nothing done on earth is ever lost. The good deed in behalf of God’s poor on earth shines brilliantly in the Kingdom of God in heaven.  INVITATION TO VARIOUS PEOPLE ANTICIPATION OF THE KINGDOM EUCHARIST AND THE KINGDOM MARY AND THE KINGDOM The Philippines was predicted to be the one of the richest countries in Asia.
Instead of becoming the richest, they became the poorest.
After World War II the Philippine economy did poorly because during the rule of Ferdinand Marcos, billions of dollars were spent on the wrong things.
Since 2004, president of the Philippines, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, has taken action in improving their economy. What is the current status of the Philippines? The Filipinos and Americans fought the Philippine-American War from 1899 to 1902, and the Americans won.
Even though the Americans won, they decided to help the Philippines become an independent nation.
On July 4, 1946, the Philippines became an independent nation. How was imperial power removed? Negative effects: a bloody war, the Philippine-American War, arose as a result of Filipino revolt against American rule. Over one million Filipinos died as a result of the war.
The Philippines was left without a strong leader and suffered economically. What were the effects of imperialism on the nation? The United States gained control of the Philippines as a result of the Spanish-American war. The Treaty of Paris gave Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines for a set price.
The Filipinos were unhappy that they were being given to another country for imperialist rule.
The U.S. felt that the Philippines was too uncivilized to govern themselves, so the U.S. kept them under their control. How did the U.S. gain control? The United States motivation for Imperialism in the Philippines can be categorized as economic, ideological, religious, political, and strategic motivation.
Economic motivation: opening new markets and trade possibilities, wanted favorable balance of trade, needed to make exports exceed imports, sought to expand foreign markets

Ideological motivation: the belief that they were racially superior to others, strong sense of nationalism during era known as the Race of empire

Religious motivation: sought to spread Christianity

Political motivation: the urge to fulfill their destiny as a world power by colonizing, looking for fresh land to conquer (islands in warm oceans)
Some Americans were against imperialism because they disliked the idea of colonizing other nations (like British with the U.S.) Motivation for Imperialism in the Region There were positive and negative effects of imperialism in the Philippines. What were the effects of imperialism on the native population? The U.S. ruled directly in the Philippines.
A conflict of interest existed between the U.S. and the Filipinos as the Americans wanted to have an overseas empire and the Filipinos wanted freedom. What was the extent of U.S. control? By: Greg Allinson, Natalie Lundgren, Katie Vaughan
Period 6 Imperialism in the Philippines Positive effects:
public education established
roads, railroads, and hospitals were built
The U.S. helped the Filipinos when the Japanese occupied the Philippines.
The U.S. eventually helped the Philippines become an independent nation. Detailed Commentary of Sollicitudo Rei Socialis General Overview of Sollicitudo Rei Socialis Nation’s Economic Initiative Nations are denied the right to develop their own initiatives and pursue their own economic and political destiny.

Particularly true of 3rd world nations: big industrial capitalist nations dictate laws and policies, for the purpose of getting wealth of these nations. Commemorating Populorum Progressio (3) to be applied to the concrete situations in order to have the solution to the social problem. (1) guidelines on which to chart one’s line of action in the solution of the social problem. Imperialism, Cause Of Deteriorating Poverty Imperialism uses mechanisms: economic, financial as well as social Economic Initiative Denied (1) state arrogates to itself all lands and businesses; leaving nothing to individuals

(2) not only makes robots of individuals, but hinders progress as well killing as it does the creative spirit and ingenuity of the citizen. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis: “cannot be said to be completely identical to that of twenty years ago,” (no.11) when Paul VI wrote Populorum Progressio

Develop further the doctrine of Populurom Pregressio, under the perspective of the “development of peoples.” (no.11) Survey of the Contemporary World Populorum Progressio and Vatican II Populorum Progressio: speaks of the same, under the prism of development and underdevelopment of peoples. Populorum Progression and Vatican II are so intertwined that the former could be considered an application of the latter.

Vatican II : poverty, of the “griefs and anxieties”of today, of especially those who are poor.” Vatican II: Church Hierarchy are not experts on economic and political matters

Vatican II: does not consider the Church Hierarchy as already possessing the solution to the problems, but slowly and painstakingly searches for it, through dialogues with the people of the World, be these communists, capitalists, etc. Vatican II: admits deficiencies, nay great sins, on the part of the Church vis-a-vis the solution of the social problem.

“The Church also realizes that in working out her relationship with the world she always has great need of the ripening which comes with the experience of the centuries. Led by the Holy Spirit, Mother Church uncreasingly exhorts her son to purify and renew themselves so that the sign of Christ can shine more brightly on the face of the Church.”(no.43) Controversy on
“Constant, Perennial Doctrine” (1) It smacks of triumphalism:

presupposes a Church that is all knowing and all knowledgeable, and almost infallible, regarding all the problems of this world. The church has already principles of solutions to all the problems of the World, and would thus simply need and adaptation of these doctrines and principles to the concrete. Goals of the Encyclical To reaffirm the continuity as well as the renewal of the social doctrine of the Church, from Leo XXIII in 1891 up to his time. To commemorate the 1967 encyclical of his predecessor Paul VI, Populorum Progressio. Published on December 30, 1987, 20th anniversary of Populorum Progressio

7th encyclical written by Pope John Paul II in his ten-year pontificate Introduction Rich industrial countries:

(1) advanced technology enabling them to produce goods that are better and cheaper than those of the 3rd world.

(2) vast capital through which they embark promotional drives that make their products household names to consumers. These mechanisms are concretizations of the policy of unlimited free trade: the powerful industrial nations enjoy clear advantage over the weaker countries, and win. An Indictment of Imperialism John Paul II wites Sollicitudo Rei Socialis to develop on what Paul VI had earlier written.
More incisive critique of imperialism
25 years are long enough to see the effects of imperialism, how the imperialists maneuvers and the havoc it made on peoples. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis is a critique of imperialism.

25 years earlier Paul VI wrote Populorum Progressio which explicitly dealt for the first time on the development of peoples, and consequently imperialism which impedes such development. Mechanisms of Imperialism rich industrial countries employ to get the 3rd world wealth are basically

the International Monetary Fund,
World Bank,
the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), now called World Trade Organization (WTO),
the APEC (Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) and the AFTA (Asean Free Trade Area) Widening Gap In Poverty Vain hopes: “Hopes for development, at that time so lively, today appear very very far from realized.”(no.12)

World Bank Statistics: number of people spending less than 1 US dollar a day has gone up from 1.23 billion in 1987 to 1.31 billion in 1983.

WB statistics: 500,000 women die in childbirth, 8 million children die from ailments caused by pollution, and 130 million – 80% of whom are women who are unable to go to school. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis: era of Populorum Progressio were times of great optimism.

People believed in the likehood of overcoming underdevelopment “without excessive efforts”(no.12) : Aid from the rich countries in the form of infrastructures and economic programs would do the job of development. (3) Development and Peace

Emphasis on development as an essential requirement of peace Time–conditioned principles:

(1) Diuturnum Illud (1881) and Immortale Dei (1881) by Leo XIII The faithful should use the talents and charisma God has given them to find out and implement the solution to the problems.

Society will not be changed for the better. Evils of Imperialism Enumerating a host of evils

Unemployment and underemployment

International debt

House crisis

Arms trade Imperialism,
Cause of the Crisis “One must denounce the existence of economic, financial and social mechanisms which, although they are manipulated by people, often function almost automatically, thus accentuating the situation of wealth for some and poverty for the rest. ... in the end they suffocate or condition the economies of the less developed countries.”(no.16) John Paul II points to imperialism as the cause of the increasing poverty
There is thus a structure of evil in international trade, for which cause John Paul II calls for a “return of the international trade system”. (no.43) Increasing poverty John Paul II points to increasing poverty as the basic reality of the contemporary world. Originality of Populorum Progressio In 1916, Lenin had already written book on imperialism, entitled: Imperialism, Last Stage of Capitalism grave omission of the Church. By not attacking imperialism for ages, leaving the Church abandoned and billions of poor people in thei poverty, betraying the mission left to her by Christ to serve the poor. (1) Moral Aspect of Development
Emphasis on the moral aspect of development development is also a moral imperative
Studied imperialism under the aspect of mortality
Emphasized the christians’ grave obligation of working for the development of people Means Against Imperialism JP II:
(1) prohibits them from using arms against traditional teaching of catholic philosophy and theology.

(2) does not say what these unions are supposed to do in concrete terms. To judge what means to use against imperialism, one must also know what means of imperialism employs to get wealth of the nations.

It uses military weapons, to quash opposition to the status quo. Arms and Underdevelopment Imperialism’s partner in the local scene: capitalist and landlord – controlled government Sollicitudo Rei Socialis underdevelopment = buy arms

Arms incalculable amount of money, money that could have otherwise been used for the development of people

Responsible for this aberration: IMPERIALISM 3rd world countries poorer,
1st world countries richer

Poverty has become worse miserable society
Miserable society 4th world : Pope John Paull II “Widening of the gap between areas of the so-called developing North and the developing South.” (no.14)

“... the conditions have become notably worse.” (no.16) Imperialism,
Cause of the Crisis effect of imperialism John Paul II: need for workers’ unions unions without teeth Objections: Universally valid principles time-conditioned principles relationship between Church and State : cannot stand if applied today Social encyclicals: (2) cannot as a whole be considered immutable, totally constant and perennial, almost infallible. (2) Worldwide Dimension of Social Problem
Ex professo treatment of the social question in its worldwide dimension, how the poor nations namely became poorer due to the oppressive practices of the rich industrial nations, i.e. imperialism.
Discussed more thoroughly the phenomenon of powerful nations grabbing the wealth of the world. Development peace
Underdevelopment war multiplies its arms, treble its military logistics, to protect itself and its imperialist masters against the anger and rebellion of the hungry population. Communism: Financial Mechanisms: virtually unlimited free trade among the nations International Monetary Fund World Bank IMF - gov't Balance of Payment deficits WB - developmental projects General Assembly of Tariff and Trade GATT / WTO •It is also comprehensive it covers four areas namely Agriculture, Services including banking, textiles and clothing, Trade-related Intellectual Property Rights and Trade-related Investment Measures.

•The rich industrial nations can flood the Third World markets with virtually all products, in open and unlimited free competition.

•Purportedly established to implement unlimited free trade, and yet it also prescribes the opposite when it concerns the interest of the rich industrial nations. •Established in 1948, two years after the founding of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank(WB).

•Had rounds or general meetings on matters affecting tariff and trade.

•New GATT or WTO is very different from the old because it has coercive powers which the old did not enjoy. Third World Government Officials Besides the rich industrial nations. SollicitudoReiSocialis points to the high ranking government officials of the Third World are responsible for Third World poverty. The Housing Crisis Sollicitudo Rei Socialis considers the housing crisis as concrete manifestation of underdevelopment Examples:
1. Squatter colonies abound in the big cities, with the families living in houses worse than the pig pens of capitalists.
2. With a very little income, income that is not sufficient even for food, it becomes impossible for people to acquire decent houses. Unemployment and Underemployment Unemployment and underemployment affect both the First and Third World, but their effects are tragic in the Third World Example:

1.As to the cause of unemployment problem in the Philippines, it is again imperialism through such policies as import liberalization and monopolies. Because of the import liberalization policy, so many goods in the Philippines are imports, produced abroad, and therefore do not offer job opportunities for Filipinos. These imports displace instead the Filipino workers who were once producing these goods. International Debt The Third World nation, who did not know how to manage the debt, though it is true that Third World leaders are also at fault, the main blame should be placed at the rich industrial countries themselves. They lend their money for selfish interests, not for helping the underdeveloped countries East and West Conflicts Sollicitudo Rei Socialis consider the conflict between the East (communism) and the West (capitalism) as another factor for the underdevelopment of peoples Example:

1.The East and West conflict also impedes development because, due to this conflict, they arm themselves with the most sophisticated and lethal weapons Arms Trade Sollicitudo Rei Socialis finds the arms trade as another negative characteristic of the contemporary world.

The arms trade is disastrous to development. The money which nations could use for development is now used to buy arms. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis cites terrorism as another negative phenomenon of the modern world.

Innocent people are captured, and then killed. Bombs are detonated in public, murdering innocent bystanders. The Fact of Terrorism Terrorism is being resorted by rebels for political goals, to win political concessions.

John Paul II cannot countenance the killing of innocent people. If there are grievances, punishment should be meted on the guilty parties, not on the innocent. Sollicitudo Rei Socialis admits that too many people in a poor country could present difficulties to development.

The wealth of the land, sea and river is sufficient to provide for multitudes of people. They key is to produce, and then distribute the goods equitably among the people. With a giant advances humanity has made in the field of technology, there is no reason that society cannot produce the goods necessary for all. The Population Problem BARBA, DEITA, ESPINO, JUMAYAO, SAGAL Pharmacy 3B
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