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Who’s Who of The Cold War
Transcript of Who’s Who of The Cold War
The United States
Harry S. Truman succeeds FDR as president
As vice-president, Truman was not included in policy decisions
- was not told about atom bomb
U.S. emerges from war as great economic power
- wants Eastern European raw materials, markets
-The United States was a capitalist democracy which valued freedom and feared Communism.
The US had beliefs in: civil liberties, representative government, free elections, freedom of speech, press, and religion.
-Create a new world order in which all nations had the right to self-determination.
-Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were productive
The United States is suspicious of Stalin because he had been Hitler’s ally
Cold War in Europe
- Conflicting U.S. and Soviet ideologies in Eastern Europe led to the Cold War.
-The Cold War was actually a conflict between the U.S. and S.U. in which neither country directly confronted each other "the annoying sibling war"
-The Cold War would dominant global issues, including U.S. foreign policy from 1945 to 1991!
The Truman Doctrine
• Truman Doctrine—support against armed minorities, outsiders
• Truman asked for major economic aid to Greece and Turkey to oppose Communism.
Adopts George Kennan’s (an American diplomat) ideas: US will contain not liberate.
US simply cannot afford to fight the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Union
Who’s Who of The Cold War
The United States and the Soviet Union emerge from World War II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems.
Stalin had backed Hitler's Germany in the beginning of WWII.
Soviet Union also has great economic, military strength
Unlike U.S., Soviet Union suffered heavy devastation on own soil
-The Soviet Union was a Communist country, which was ruled by a dictator and put the needs of the state ahead of personal human rights.
Stalin does not allow free, multiparty elections in Poland
- bans democratic parties
-The Soviets wanted to control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe
-To keep Germany divided and weak so that it would never again threaten the SU
-Wanted to install communist rule in satellite nations, countries it dominates/ spread communist beliefs
Stalin resents that U.S. delayed attacking Germany and hid atom bomb
Doctrine: a belief
The Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan- (Also known as European Recovery Program ERP)
-1947, Sec. of State George Marshall proposes aid to nations in need stating this move was "not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos."
• Marshall Plan revives 16 nations to fight against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.
• US will support countries that renounce communism.
• Building trading partners in Western Europe
-Western Europeans nations provided $13 Billion to rebuild economies and resist Soviet pressures and by 1952, Western Europe was flourishing and the Communist party was losing its appeal.
-The goals of the US was to rebuild war-devastated region, remove trade barriers, modernize industry and to help make Europe prosperous again.
-1946, Stalin announces war between communism, capitalism inevitable
- By this point, the United States decided it was time to action and in the words of Truman, to stop "babying the Soviets."
- 1946, an American diplomat by the name of George Kennan suggested a policy of containment.
U.S. policy of containment—measures to prevent spread of communism to
- Those countries who are smaller or weaker and who are unable to stop the expansion.
-Churchill describes division of Europe as iron curtain