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ASTHMA

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Jelmer Manaois

on 21 June 2016

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Transcript of ASTHMA

The story
Alex was born having many risk factors that lead to developing Asthma:
Low birth weight
Has family history of allergies
His father smokes- exposure to tobacco
Genetic tendency to develop allergic disease (ex: eczema), 3/5 of asthma cases are heredity
The story
Through out his infancy and toddler hood, he had:
Frequent intermittent coughing
Slight wheezing sound when exhaling
Shortness of breath (Especially after physical activity)
Mild chest pain
Sometimes had chest congestion or tightening
At The Hospital
Medical History:
The story
Parents thought his symptoms were due to:

Low immune system
Allergy of dust mites, and pollens in the air


Thank you!
What Is Asthma
Incurable disease affecting the airways that carry air to and from your lungs
People who suffer from this chronic condition (Long lasting or recurrent) are called asthmatic

Asthma
Diagnosis
Created by:
Bradley Piecowye
Jelmer Manaois


Occasionally had trouble sleeping due to coughing and wheezing
Frequently got colds-his coughing worsened
Delayed recovery of colds and flue
Always tired ( partially due to lack of sleep)
Mild case of eczema
Suspected Asthma:
3 component test:
Medical History
Physical Exam
Lung Test
Does he have allergies?
What are his symptoms?
Is he exposed to tobacco, smoke, chemical fumes?
Does he have any pets?
What medications or herbal supplements does he take?
At The Hospital #2
Went to the hospital
Told doctor of the incident
Doctor didn't think it was a allergic reaction
Hives
Itching
Rash
Watery or itching eyes
Nasal congestion
Physical Exam:
Examined nose, throat, upper airways
Used stethoscope to listen to breathing: if there is wheezing (high pitched whistling sound)
Examines skin for signs of eczema or hives
Physical Examination for Children
Diagnosing children for asthma is harder so the doctor paid close attention to...
louder of faster breathing
(Newborns:

30-60 breaths per minute
,
Toddlers 20-60 breaths per min)
frequent coughing (epically if it worsens after active pay
clear mucus, runny nose caused by hay fever
limited participation in physical activity
One day at the age of 5. Alex was outside during recess. A dog came by and not knowing that he was allergic to dogs, he began to pet it, after recess was over he had difficulty breathing. He began wheezing and a little bit of itchy skin. His teacher called home and his mom came and brought Alex to the hospital.
Lung Testing:
A test that requires one to take deep breaths and forcefully exhale into a hose connected to the spirometry (a machine)
Helps to determine how well the lungs function
2 Key Measurements:
forced vital capacity: Maximum amount of air one can inhale or exhale
forced expiratory volume: maximum amount of air exhaled in 1 second
The doctor gave a bonchodilater drug to him. (This drug opens air passageways)
He did the test for a second time
There was significant improvement also an indication of asthma

The doctor then, compared the results against the standard result for a healthy person. Alex`s measurements were below normal -- It`s a strong indication of asthma narrowing his airways.
If spirometer results are normal, doctor can try to trigger asthma symptoms having one inhale substance that causes airways to narrow in people with asthma like methacholine
It`s a cholinergic drug that causes wheezing and shortness of breath
Diagnosis
2 Other Tests:
Chest X-Ray: Produces images of lungs, heart, blood vessels, airways and bones of our spine and chest
This is done to see if there is any fluid in the lungs
harder to diagnose children smaller than the age of 5
The doctor wanted to check if Alex had reflux disease, heartburn, hay fever, sleep apnea, airway tumor, airway obstruction or lung infection
Take off shirt
Stand in front of machine
Take a deep breath and hold it
Might be moved around for a better angle
Another Test
Complete Blood Count:
Evaluate your overall health
Detect a wide range of disorders, including anemia, infection and leukemia
Measures red blood cells, white blood cells, hemoglobin, which carry oxygen
Automated analyzer
Another Test
Peak Flow Testing:
Self-assessment to evaluate lung function
Provides reliable measure of airway function
Small device that one blows into it measures the fastest rate of air (airflow) that you can blow out of your lungs. It records airflow in liters per minute (L/min)
You must put the marker to zero, take a deep breath, seal your lips around the mouthpiece, then blow as hard and as fast as you can into the device
Do three blows, one after the other.
The (best of the three) is the reading to record.
Diagnosis
Mild Persistent Asthma:
Symptoms occur more than twice a week, less than once a day
Night-time symptoms occur more than twice a month
Anatomy
Mouth:
Pharynx:
Bronchi:
Bronchioles:
Diaphragm:
Opening in the lower part of the human face, through which air is taken in.
A tube or cavity connects the mouth and nose to the esophagus
Two main tubes at branch off of the trachea and lead to the right and left lungs
Mini branches of bronchial tubes that are connected to the alveoli.
Large dome-shaped muscle located below the lungs. It plays a major role in breathing.
Lungs:
Trachea:
Larynx:
Nose:
Above the mouth, used for breathing and smelling, also acts as a air filtration to protect the lungs.
Hollow muscular organ that forms an air passage to the lungs and holds vocal cords (A.K.A Voice Box)
Large tube held open by cartilage rings that convey air to and from the lungs.
Pair of breathing organs that remove carbon dioxide from the body and bring oxygen to the blood
Alveoli:
The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place
Physiology
Respiratory System is responsible for the intake of oxygen and the disposal of carbon dioxide. The other functions of the respiratory system is to...
Defend against invasion of airborne microorganisms that produce sounds making speech possible (larynx)
Regulates blood volume and pressure
The Nasal has 3 parts: Nose, Nasal Passages, and sinuses
Walls of the nasal passage are lined with mucous and covered with cilia
The two attachments trap foreign particles and remove them
Mucous moistens the air and the capillaries in the nose , and warms the air as well
In nasal passage: air is being warmed, moistened and filtered
Air makes its way into the pharynx
Uvula covers and protects this opening during swallowing
Air travels on down into the larynx, the voice box.
Larynx is also covered during swallowing by the epiglottis
Air is still making its way, it goes down into the trachea, a tube that runs from the larynx to the lungs
Lined with a ciliated mucous membrane which traps foreign particles and moves the mucous into the pharynx into 2 bronchi which then branch into bronchial tubes and the bronchioles end up in sacs called the alveoli
Gas Exchange During Breathing:
Takes place at alveolar surface, closely linked with rich capillary supply
During inhalation, oxygen moves down into capillaries and binds with hemoglobin
Carbon Dioxide in blood leaves capillaries and is expelled during upcoming exhalation
Inhalation:
Movement of air into lungs
Diaphragm contracts causing thoracic cavity to enlarge
Causes the drop in pressure in the lungs, bring in air
Exhalation:
Moment of air out of lungs
Respiratory muscles relax
Elastic fibers in lung tissue recoils
Reduces thoracic cavity
Expels air due to higher air pressure within
3 Features Of Asthma
1. Airway Obstruction
Normal breathing ; bands of muscle that surround airways relax, air moves freely.
With asthma; bands of muscle surrounding airways tighten, and air cannot move freely.
Less air causes a person to fell short of breath
Air moving out through the tightened airways cause whistling sound known as wheezing.
2. Airway Inflammation
Red and swollen bronchial tubes.
Inflammation contributes greatly to long-term damage that asthma causes to the lungs.
Treating the inflammation is key to managing asthma in the long run.
3. Airway Irritability
Airways of people with asthma are extremely sensitive
Airways tend to overreact due to the slightest triggers such as pollen, animal dander, dust, or fumes
Treatment
In order to minimize side effects, the doctor prescribed the lowest dose of medication needed to control Alex`s symptoms.
He also created an action plan
Recommended check-ups every month
Stay away from pets (stay away from things that trigger asthma)
Father shouldn't smoke in house (quit if possible)
2 types of Medications
Each medication treats only one aspect of the condition
Can be in form of pills, powders, or mists
Long Term Control Medicine
Taken everyday
Most effective medicine is inhaled corticosteroids
Reduces airway inflammation and prevents asthma symptoms
Quick relief medicine
Common medication is B2-agonist (bronchodilators that quickly relax tight muscles around airways - lets airflow through it)
Rescue medicine
Cant be used more than twice a week
While its causes are still unknown, researchers have determined that asthma can be caused by both hereditary (inherited) and environmental factors.
Just because you have a parent with asthma (or an allergy) doesn't mean you'll have it too. But you might inherit the tendency to develop asthma.
Re-Cap Video
Full transcript