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20th Century Science and Technology
Transcript of 20th Century Science and Technology
-limited formal education After: -largely specialized
-professional Thus, technological Activity after 1950 was more effective The Methods of Technological Work -the basic methods have changed
-more science based
-method is the systemic reasearch using the systems approach
-in 1850, science affected a new technology: electrical engineering -in WW1, scientists discovered the power of science to solve technological problems and produce advances in technology Basic method and system of technological method by Edison -the definition of need
-a clear objective or goal
-identification of the basic steps to be taken
-a consistent "feedback" from the result of the work done
-organization of the work dividing the labor among specific work team Thomas Edison 1. Physics -Einstein's theory of relativity revolutionized the concept of time, matter, energy and gravity
-Quantum theory revolutionized physics and resulted in the current description of atom 2. Astronomy and Cosmology Discovered black holes, dark matter, dark energy, inflation period, modified the Big Bang Theory and the physics of early universe thanks to Einstein's relativity theory. Francis Cruz
Gladys Tiongson 3. Geology -Continental drift theory and plate tectonics theory have gained wide acceptance
-Geologists continue to look for new evidences in these theories. 4. Chemistry -Structural organic chemistry led to the code of the DNA
-Organic chem investigated vital molecules like hemoglobin 5. Biology -Darwin's theory on natural selection and Gregor Mendel's work facilitated understanding of genes and chromosomes
-Molecular biology unlocked genetic code Scientific Activities extensive and rapid advances in science 6. Medicine -Finally understood processes and causes thanks to Biotechnology
-Discovery of the first antibiotic: PENICILLIN (Alexander Fleming 1928)
-More medical research after WWII
-More knowledge on endocrine, respiratory and urinary systems
-PROBLEM: AIDS AND CANCER 1904 1906-1932 Alternative Medicine -Unconventional
-Some are complementary
-Medical associations think it's unnecessary and useless
-Still popular to many Hemeopathy -A substance that causes the symptoms of a disease in healthy people will cure that disease in sick people.
-You treat 'like with like' Chiropractic -Misalignment of spinal cord leads to many different problems
-Treatment : spine manipulation Acupuncture -Pain relief by inserting needles into the body
-'To balance body forces'
-Used for a wide range of problems Osteopathy -Musculoskeletal defect influences different body functions
-Massage therapy Herbal Medicine -Can be inhaled, applied to the skin, suppository, tablet or liquid Naturopathy -Practice is from Native Americans
-Believed all living things can heal Distinguishing Features of Contemporary Science and Technology 1. Product of Contemporary Technology -Complex; has so many parts
-Require other support systems (ex. Cars need roads,gas, etc.)
-Many users don't even know the science behind these -Irrelevant to most people
-ex. Laymen find no use for the quantum theory
-Usually highly mathematical 2. Product of Contemporary Science -Takes place in laboratories 3. Settings Input 4. Resources -These resources cost a lot of money Transformative -To transform input to output
-ex. Labor, Technique, Knowledge 5. Practitioner -Are now more numbered
-Takes several years to master and study 6. Collaboration -Many scientists collaborate 7. Scale -Very large scale of participants and budget 8. International Character -Contemporary science and technology have been internationalized Scientific Theories 1. Physics Einsteins Theory of Relativity •Measurements are relative to the velocities of observers. Thus space and time can dilate. •Space and time are interrelated
•The speed of light is always constant for all observers. Quantum Theory -Unlike the theory of relativity, this deals with tiny things (e.g. -atomic and subatomic particles)-Uncertainty: principle of indeterminacy
-Dual nature of light and subatomical particles Standard Model -electromagnetic, weak and strong nuclear forces mediate the dynamics of subatomic particles being the quarks, leptons and bosons 2. Astronomy and Cosmology The Big Bang Theory - The Universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state which expanded RAPIDLY
-Said to be 13.75 Billion years ago Star Evolution -A star goes through drastic changes throughout it’s lifetime-Different masses = different processes Relativistic Cosmology -Concerned with the formation and evolution of the universe
-The expansion will continue whether the universe is flat, spherical or hyperbolic- The existence of black holes and dark matter 3. Biology 1. Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium P^2 + PQ + Q^2 2. Revised Theory of Natural Selection Evolution
is the change in gene frequency over time due to mutations, immigrations, populations and death Major Discoveries or Theories