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Industrial heritage in Brazil
Transcript of Industrial heritage in Brazil
2. The constitution of the field of knowledge
3. The safeguarding of industrial heritage in Brazil re-appropriation and redefinition of the remains of the industrial production Heritage by designation cultural objects that are listed, institutionalized, and labeled by experts. loss of memories and cultural "substances" (BERGERON and DOREL-FERRE: 1996) Appreciation, enhancement Destruction WWII
New dynamics of industry cement factory, Barcelona, Spain Disappearance tangible and intangible industrial heritage items Places of memory identity value Heritage by appropriation (Rautenberg 1998) the social or ethnological heritage that includes landscapes, living places and non-exceptional building ensembles. 1950s
Industrial Archaeology (Journal Amateur Historian)
Council for British Archaeology (CBA)
1st national conference of Industrial Archaeology
Public demonstrations against the demolition of the Euston Arch in London Origins:
Convergence between academic and institutionalized interests and a wave of popular enthusiasm Production of books
Kenneth Hudson: Industrial Archaeology: An Introduction (1963)
Museums of industry
Ironbridge Gorge Museum (1967) Massimo Negri and Antonello Negri
L'archeologia industriale, 1978.
Journal: L’Archeologie Industrielle en France, 1976. 1981 - 4th International Conference on the Conservation of Monuments Industrial (Lyon and Grenoble)> International Committee for the Conservation of the Industrial Heritage (TICCIH); historical value
architectural value Debate centered around the term Industrial "Archeology" and its epistemological implications.
Buchanan (1989)> Industrial Archeology is "archaeological" because "it is concerned with using physical evidence to interpret and reconstruct past human societies."
Industrial Archeology> appropriate methodology to study the physical remains of the industrial past. Defining the field: Industrial archeology:
is a field of study concerned with investigating, surveying, recording and, in some cases, with preserving industrial monuments. It aims, moreover, at assessing the significance of these monuments in the context of social and technological history. For the purposes of this definition, an ‘industrial monument’ is any relic of an obsolete phase of an industry or transport system, ranging from a Neolithic flint mine to a newly obsolete aircraft or electronic computer. (BUCHANAN: 1972, 20-21) industrial archeology technocentric perspective Emphasis on physical evidence
Approach focused on production processes, technology and structures of individual industries “industrial archaeology has developed procedures for the investigation and analysis of technical monuments and machinery, but has had little to say about the organization and experience of working life.”
(Alfrey e Putnam: 1992, 7) Questioning of the paradigms of Industrial Archeology
Broadening the field of interest Industrial Archeology beyond the physical remains
Aspects of the social dimension of the industrial past "le cadre matériel figé d'une production qui s'est arrêtée, si riche d'information qu'il puisse être, renvoie pour son interprétation à d'autres catégories du patrimoine industriel:
les archives d'entreprises, notamment dans leurs aspects techniques (plans de construction et d'extension; inventaires de l'outillage; commandes de matériels nouveaux) et sociaux (gestion du personnel au travail et dans sa vie privée);
les témoignages écrits et oraux des partenaires de l'entreprise sur leurs expériences de la direction et du travail, ou sur le style des relations sociales industrielles;
les représentations de tous genres, enfin, des lieux, des gestes et des hommes."
(BERGERON e DOREL-FERRE: 1996, 10) 2005. Eleanor Colin Casella and James Symonds.
Industrial archaeology: future directions. 1998. Marilyn Palmer and Peter Neaverson. Industrial Archeology: principles and practices. Joint ICOMOS – TICCIH Principles for the Conservation of Industrial Heritage Sites, Structures, Areas and Landscapes “The Dublin Principles”, 28 November 2011
The industrial heritage consists of sites, structures, complexes, areas and landscapes as well as the related machinery, objects or documents that provide evidence of past or ongoing industrial processes of production, the extraction of raw materials, their transformation into goods, and the related energy and transport infrastructures. Industrial heritage reflects the profound connection between the cultural and natural environment, as industrial processes – whether ancient or modern – depend on natural sources of raw materials, energy and transportation networks to produce and distribute products to broader markets. It includes both material assets – immovable and movable –, and intangible dimensions such as technical knowhow, the organisation of work and workers, and the complex social and cultural legacy that shaped the life of communities and brought major organizational changes to entire societies and the world in general. ... élaborer les règles et les contenus d'une archéologie matérielle et d'une ethno-histoire appelées à renouveler la conception classique de l'histoire industrielle au sens le plus large du terme
L'autre tâche consiste, à travers une connaissance de plus en plus fine et plus exhaustive des vestiges du patrimoine industriel, à faciliter son intégration dans le patrimoine national, à encourager sa sauvegarde dans sas éléments les plus significatifs, sa réutilisation ou sa valorisation auprès du public des musées ou du tourisme de sites.
(BERGERON e DOREL-FERRE: 1996, 5) The debates on industrial heritage in Brazil are still very incipient in the academic world, in governmental policies and among the general public Nowadays, both the colonial and the nineteenth century industrial heritage as well as the factories and warehouses of the first decades of the XX century are in jeopardy, despite Brazilian unique heritage, such as sugar cane producing units, mining complexes, coffee farms and factories.
MENEGUELLO: 2006, 1) Some of the monuments that are currently considered as part of the country’s national industrial heritage were not listed under the flag of industrial heritage safeguard. colonial architecture milestones in the process of the construction of the national State Ouro Preto, MG Real Fábrica de Ferro São João de Ipanema, SP •1976: The first scholarly article written by the American historian Warren Dean – “Fábrica São Luiz de Itu: um estudo de arqueologia industrial”
• 2004: 1st National Seminar on Industrial Heritage (I Encontro em Patrimônio Industrial)
•2004: a Brazilian representation of TICCIH was organized Dossier Revista Patrimônio IPHAN, 2006 Beatriz Mugayar Kühl. Preservação do Patrimônio Arquitetônico da Industrialização: Problemas Teóricos de Restauro, 2009 Edgar de Decca, Cristina Meneguello. Fábricas e Homens: a revolução industrial e o cotidiano dos trabalhadores, 1999. Luz train station/Portuguese Language Museum, São Paulo Olivetti typewriter factory/shopping center, Guarulhos- SP Three major setbacks:
The absence of governmental policies adapted to the safeguard specificities of industrial heritage. Archeology, landscape, ethnography: includes “things belonging to the category of archeological, ethnographical, Native American or popular art”, as well as natural monuments, sites and landscapes.
Historical: “things of historical interest and the historical works of art”.
Fine Arts: “things of national or foreign erudite art”.
Applied Arts: “works that are included in the category of Applied Arts, national or foreign”.
(Decree-Law 25/1937 Article 4.) The lack of recording and data systematization to support academic research and to prompt protective measures.
General lack of public consciousness. “For most people, building of historical value is still that of old architectural style or which once had a socially or culturally relevant use. As factories and the working world have never enjoyed here [in Brazil] this aura of nobility, the preservation of manufacturing spaces has always been regarded as secondary, even superfluous.”*
Morais apud Mawakdiye 2006) Duchen candies and cookies factory. São Paulo Brahma brewery, Rio de Janeiro The protection of industrial heritage is closely tied to "“The resurgence of identitarian feelings, of wanting to belong to a history, culture, region or district is symptomatic of the human need to know oneself and for one’s identity to be acknowledged.” (UNESCO 2008, 20-21)
As Bergeron supports the appreciation of heritage cannot be imposed on to society, "elle a besoin d'être le fruit d’une réappropriation opérée par les citoyens eux-mêmes.” (BERGERON: 2006, 29) TPTI Master