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Chinese Ancient Civilizations
Transcript of Chinese Ancient Civilizations
Ancient China is mostly centered around east and central china, that is where the Yangtze River and Yellow River is. Today's Western China was where mostly Turkic people and Tibetans
lived. Today's Northern China was where the Mongol and Manchus people lived.
This is a map of Ancient China. It includes the Silk Route, the Great Wall of China and Ancient Dynasties.
The Ancient Chinese people’s clothing was simple. Clothes were made of animal skins, such as in other parts of the world. As the years progressed they began to make tunics out of soft weave able fabrics such as plants and silk from silkworms. The fabric silk was invented by the Chinese people in 5000 B.C. Silk is made from the cocoon of the silkworm moth. To take the silk of the worm the cocoon is heated and the worm is killed. The cocoon is then soaked in hot water to soften the fibres. The silk fibres are then unwound carefully. The thread from one silkworm cocoon can be up to 3000 metres long. Silk was so precious to the Ancient Chinese, that people who shared the secret of how to make silk were often killed. Most men in ancient China wore shoes, poor people wore sandals made of straw and wealthy Chinese wore slippers made of cloth.
These pictures are examples of the clothing
they would have worn. This tunic, made of silk, would be worn
by a wealthy woman being married.
Peasants couldn't afford cloth slippers
like wealthy people. So they wove straw
and made sandals, such as these.
In early times rivers, lakes and oceans played an important role in developing civilizations. In Ancient China the Yellow river and the Yangtze River were essential to the development of Chinese civilization. The Yangtze River is the third longest river in the world. It floods every year and leaves fertile soil along the banks. The floodings made rice growing possible for the Chinese.
This picture is of the Yangtze River
rice basins. These Chinese people are
planting rice like they have for thousands
Government Power and Authority
In Ancient China the people were ruled by a king. The Chinese people believed that their ruler was a direct descendant of Shang-Ti, the supreme god. The king made many of his decisions using Oracle bones (Oracle bones are ox or turtle bone). To make the decision the Oracle bone would first be doused with blood, and then the question would be written on the bone. They would then heat the bone until it cracks. The king reads the crack in the bone as a yes, no, lucky or unlucky.
After the oracle bones were discovered,
scientists and Archeologists examined them
and found that many of them were
fossilized dinosaur bones.
Commoners and Farmers
Ancient Chinese Hierarchy of Society
Time period of Ancient China:
China has the longest running civilization ever. Ancient civilization in China's culture dates back, 33000 years. In Ancient China there were centuries of migration, combinations of cultures, and development brought from others cultures for example writing, philosophy, art, and political organization that came to be a part of China's civilization in early times. The Chinese people mainly originated in the Yellow River and the Yangtze River valleys in the Neolithic era. As history tells Yellow River the was the” Cradle of Chinese Civilization”. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations.
Xia 2100- 1600BC
Shang 1600 - 1046 BC
Zhou 1046-256 BC
Spring and Autumn Period (722-476 BC) or (1046 B.C.- 256 B.C.)
Warring States Period (476-221 BC)
Qin- 221 BC- 206 BC
Han 202 BC- AD 220
Wei and Jin Period (AD 265–420)
Wu Hu Period (AD 304–439)
Southern and Northern Dynasties (AD 420–589)
Sui Dynasty (AD 589–618)
Tang Dynasty (AD 618–907)
Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (AD 907–960)
Song, Liao and Jin Dynasties 960- 1234AB
Yuan Dynasty (AD 1271–1368)
Ming Dynasty (AD 1368–1644)
Qing Dynasty (AD 1644–1911)
Religious and Cultural Interaction:
One of Ancient China's most important festival is the Chinese New Year. The Chinese New Year is based on the cycles of the moon. In ancient china this month long celebration begins between January 21st and ends on February 20. The Chinese New Year marks the ending of one farming season and the beginning of the other. They prepare for it by cleaning and of course decorating their houses. They also celebrate this holiday with praising the renewal of life and the returnal of spring.
People celebrating Chinese
New Year in Ancient China.
Most people believed in a spirit world and believed in afterlife. The most important God at that times name was Tein the God of heaven. They also practiced ancestor worship, very similar to what first nation people believe, Younger family members were respectful to elder members of the family and to the community. Not all Ancient China worshiped one god and believed in one thing. Instead they worshipped various gods that give them food and life. In ceremonies they danced under the hot sun until the women or men began to sweat, which was supposed to bring rain for the dry crops in the summer.
In Ancient China when a ruler died a pit was dug in the ground and the coffin was carried into the center of the pit. He was accompanied with all the things the king may need in his after life. Like weapons, ornaments, horses, chariots and dogs. Many humans were sacrificed so that they would be able to serve the king in the afterlife.
Science and technology:
The Chinese people used the potter’s wheel to make beautiful elaborate pottery. With pottery they made chariot decorations and many weapons and tool. For example spears, knives, and axes. There was a method to make bronze urns and vases; it was called the “lost Wax method”. This method consisted of making a mould of wax then applying it to some clay. This mixture was baked at a very high temperature. This procedure would make the wax melt and it would run out of the holes of the mould leaving the clay. The lost wax method was to be used to make and decorate bronze urns.
Many people in Ancient China very skilled at working with materials like jade, wood, and bone.Which were very important to farmers and builders. Jade is very important in the Ancient Chinese culture and very hard to be mined but also very expensive to buy. For transportation they used cart wheels, wheel barrels, paddle wheel boats and sledges. They also used a very intricate and difficult design called differential windlass system. This system was made up of ropes and pulleys. This system is very handy for one person to lift a heavy object.
Tea was invented in Ancient China around
2000 BC. It was first supposedly discovered when an
emperor was sitting under a tree waiting for
a servant to boil water for him (they had to boil
the water to clean it). While the water was
boiling a leaf from the tree fell into it, the emperor
enjoyed the taste. At first only Royals and Nobles
were allowed to drink tea.
Family and Social structure
It was common for an emperor to have many wives to increase his chance of having a son so they could pass on the power to a family member. Once the emperor chose the son that he wanted to raise as an emperor the mother of the son would become the empress.
Nobles were people who fought in king's army, provided weapons, foot soldiers, and chariots. They were normally the kings or emperors extended family. The craft people formed small groups and divided into small social class. This class included bronze and jade workers, potters, and stonemasons. Traders bought and sold what everyone else made. They were considered very lazy.
Boys in China usually kept on living with their families even after they grew up. Spending their whole lives living in the same house. When there family members got old they were the ones to take care of them. When girls got married they went to live in their husband's house and listened and obeyed anything that there mother-in-laws told them to do because it was there house. The men were respected more in ancient china and had more rights and privileges than women.
Ancient China had lots of respect for elders. They listen to them and the elders are in charge until they die but still the family believed the elder who had passed away were still watching over the family. They made altars so they could sacrifice to the spirits of their ancestors because there spirits were still there.
Recreation and Entertainment:
For entertainment they watched cockfighting, played kicking shuttle, played soccer, went kit flying and set of fireworks. Cockfighting consisted of a cock which is a type of bird that’s instinct is fighting. They would let the foster cocks out loose and watch them for amusement. There were many different ways of winning depending on where you lived and what Chinese culture you were.
Soccer was a very popular sport back in ancient china. Soccer actually originated in China even though many people believe that it originated in Britain. The history of soccer in ancient China started over 2,300 years ago. It was announced that it originated in China at the FIFA would cup in 2004. Some military training actually consisted of playing soccer.
Flying kites was another activity to do in ancient china. They did not only fly them but they made them. They would slice bamboo in very thin pieces and that would be the main part of the kites. This light material would allow the kite to rise against the wind. They called kites Wooden Bird because they were made out of bamboo and they would sail in the sky like birds.
In the period of ancient China they invented many things, including fireworks. They would set off fireworks much like our reason. To set off the festival atmosphere and bring out the joy and happiness of the fireworks while they were being set off in the sky.
Language and Writing
The earliest signs of Chinese writing dates back to over 4,000 years ago. The Chinese people write in large beautiful drawn symbols known as characters. The symbols are drawn using calligraphy. The Chinese characters are written in columns. These columns are read from top to bottom and from right to left. Current Chinese writing includes two main methods of writing symbols, the Wenyan method which uses classical Chinese symbols, and the Baihua method which includes vernacular Chinese symbols. The two systems combine to bridge the gap between ancient Chinese writings and current day vocabulary. The chinsese have a unique writing system, china is an enormous country with two main languages such as mandarin Chinese and Cantonese Chinese. Many different dialects were made from these two main languages.
The history of Chinese food dates back to over 5000 years ago. Rice and Barley was a common dish ate in Ancient China.When people could afford it, they bought or grew vegetables to put on their rice. Soybeans, are native to China. So are cucumbers. For fruits, the Chinese had oranges and lemons, peaches and apricots. Ginger and anise are also from China. Tea was also very popular although at first only Royals were allowed to drink it. Chopsticks have been recorded being used since the Shang Dynasty,1600-1100 BC. Chopsticks were made of bamboo, wood, ivory or metal. Most people used bamboo or wood chopsticks.
Military and Warfare
The actual army of the Chinese empire was raised for the first time during the era of the 3 Sovereigns and the 5 Emperors. In Chinese history, the rulers of this era were sometimes considered to be mythological. Hence, the records of the battles or wars that occurred between the tribes and settlements during this period are not concrete.
The first ever recorded battle in ancient China was the Battle of Banquan, that took place in the 26th Century BC, but the actual location of the battle is debatable. Some people think it took place somewhere near Banquan in China.
The second battle that took place in this era was the Battle of Zhuolu. In this war Emperor Huang Di defeated Chi You. Chi You was often considered as a deity who fought Emperor Huang Di. These battles have been recorded in Sima Qian's records
Contributions to Canada
Ancient China has contibuted many things
that we still use today in our country. Such as...
Thank you for watching
Music was also important to the
Chinese culture. This video is of a woman
playing the Zheng, a Chinese string instrument.