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The Unification of Germany with answers
Transcript of The Unification of Germany with answers
Part 1 (p. 141, p.148-157)
The 1848 revolutions
Why did they fail? p. 149
Frankfurt parliament had no
old rulers launched
with loyal support from
What were the results of the Revolutions? p.150
almost all states had
some kind of parliament
measures to help
Developments in Prussia 1849-62
HE PRUSSIAN UNION PLAN p. 150
1. Although King Fedrick William refused the Imperial crown offered by the
, he was ready to become the head of Germany if he had
the consent of the German princes
2. In 1849
proposed the Prussian Union Plan called
excluding Austria and under the leadership of
3. Austrian Chief Minister
found the plan unacceptable but postponed the matter because of Austria's problems within
4. At Erfurt in March1850, 28 German states agreed to the creation of the Prussian dominated
5. Schwarzenberg, having suppressed the
revolt was ready to re-assert Austria's position.
6. He summoned the Diet of the Confederation in
. In May 1850 there were 2 German assemblies:
Prussia's CONSERVATIVE and REACTIONARYchief minister Otto von Mantueffel
William I of Prussia, Emperor of the German Reich
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of the New German Empire (Reich)
What factors helped Bismarck p.155-57)
How United was Germany in 1815?
Difficulties for a united Germany p. 141
Cultural difference between
Economic differences between
industrialised and liberal west
agrarian and autocratic east
German states 1815
William I - and Constitutional crisis
1. Conservative but believed in the rule
of the law
2. Dismissed Manteuffel and replaced him with ministry of
3. In 1858 elections moderate liberals won small
4. William wanted to strengthen
5. The Minister of
, General von Roon, introduced bill to
the army, increase the
period of service
, reduce role of
6. Parliament against: increasing
the military budget
and reducing the role of the
because feared army wld become a
force of repression
7. Army reform bill led to :
a constitutional crisis.
8. Newly elected Parliament wld not
pass the bill
May 1862 elections victory for the
BISMARCK as Chief Minister
1. Long term strategy: to
make war on France
a united Germany under Prussia
2. REALPOLITIK =
3. Bismarck's realpolitik = i
ncrease the power of the Prussian state
4. p. 155 Bismarck's aims in 1862:
initially unity of
not to the
great issues decided by
Prussian leadership in Germany
would ensure Prussian might
Wanted to end Austrian leadership in the Confederation by diplomatic solution.
The capitulation at Olmutz November 1850
1. In the state of Hesse-Cassel there was an
troops to repress the revolt were sent by
. The Erfurt Parliament also sent
troops. Not to risk an armed conflict Prussia withdrew its troops.
in November 1850 Federick William agreed to abolish the
4. Schwarzenberg proposed an Austrian
dominated "Middle Europe"
incorporating .... . The proposal was rejected .
5. In May 1851 the
was restored and Austrian supremacy in Germany was re-established. The Prussians considered this capitulation a humiliation, Austria was an obstacle to a Prussian dominated united Germany.
Germany's economic development pre-1850
p. 148 Economic developments encouraged German Unity
economic unit of
common system of
= formation of a
growth of industrialisation and urbanisation growth of i
ndustrial middle class
Middle class supported
Prussian political situation and economic development in the 1850'sp.151-152
1. Prussia's government in the 1850's was led by ultra conservative chief minister:
2. Prussia was politically reactionary, socially
3. Development of the Zollverein.
4. Austria's chief Minister, Schwarzenberg, proposed to establish a
. This plan failed.
5. So Prussia dominated the
of the German states and Austria had the
leadership of the Confederation.
6. Prussia avoided military conflict, did not take part in the
1. 3 short wars:
2. Great improvements in Prussian Army thanks to War Minister
. Railways were important to
3.Economic growth =
. Key industrialist:
produced high quality armaments .
4. The Zollverein made Prussia have
in Germany, however to
counterbalance Prussia's economic predominance
, the German states supported Austria.
5. Germans had little interest in
but the middle class supported
. Fears of French
. Popular nationalism stronger in
6. Prussia second-rate power .'. did not arouse
hostility in its neighbours
Britain: non-interventionist policy in
concerned with r
eforms at home
and had great economic difficulties so
was unable to modernise her army
Prussia's Economic Boom p. 154 -156
1. Zollverein allowed exchange of goods among the German states
2. Prussia had a good
to transport troops
3. Had plentiful supplies of
iron/steel, coal and chemicals
4. Had a good system of
5. Individuals like
produced high quality armaments.
* German Confederation 1815 - 1866
loose association of 39 central German states created after the Congress of Vienna 1815.
educated workers /citizens/employers = </+ economic development