Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

The Unification of Germany with answers

No description
by

Elisabetta Paoli

on 2 December 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of The Unification of Germany with answers

The Unification of Germany
Part 1 (p. 141, p.148-157)

The 1848 revolutions
Why did they fail? p. 149
.
revolutionaries deeply
divided
Frankfurt parliament had no
army
, nor
police force
, nor
money
old rulers launched
counter-revolutions
with loyal support from
their armies
What were the results of the Revolutions? p.150
liberal constitutions
withdrawn
censorship
reintroduced
BUT
feudal privileges
WERE ABOLISHED
almost all states had
some kind of parliament
and
constitution
measures to help
peasantry
and
urban workers
were introduced.

Developments in Prussia 1849-62
T
HE PRUSSIAN UNION PLAN p. 150
1. Although King Fedrick William refused the Imperial crown offered by the
Frankfurt parliament
, he was ready to become the head of Germany if he had
the consent of the German princes
2. In 1849
General Radowitz
proposed the Prussian Union Plan called
Kleindeutschreich
excluding Austria and under the leadership of
Prussia
3. Austrian Chief Minister
Schwarzenberg
found the plan unacceptable but postponed the matter because of Austria's problems within
Austrian Empire
4. At Erfurt in March1850, 28 German states agreed to the creation of the Prussian dominated
Erfurt Union
.
5. Schwarzenberg, having suppressed the
Hungarian
revolt was ready to re-assert Austria's position.
6. He summoned the Diet of the Confederation in
FRankfurt
. In May 1850 there were 2 German assemblies:
Erfurt
and
Frankfurt
Prussia's CONSERVATIVE and REACTIONARYchief minister Otto von Mantueffel
William I of Prussia, Emperor of the German Reich
Otto von Bismarck
Chancellor of the New German Empire (Reich)
What factors helped Bismarck p.155-57)
How United was Germany in 1815?
Difficulties for a united Germany p. 141
Politically divided
Prussia
and
Austria
were rivals
Cultural difference between
Protestant

north
and
Catholic

south
Economic differences between
industrialised and liberal west
and
agrarian and autocratic east
German states 1815
William I - and Constitutional crisis
1. Conservative but believed in the rule
of the law
2. Dismissed Manteuffel and replaced him with ministry of
liberals
and
conservatives
.
3. In 1858 elections moderate liberals won small
majority
in Parliament.
4. William wanted to strengthen
army
.
5. The Minister of
war
, General von Roon, introduced bill to
reform
the army, increase the
period of service
, reduce role of
civilian militia
.
6. Parliament against: increasing
the military budget
and reducing the role of the
civilian militia
because feared army wld become a
force of repression
.
7. Army reform bill led to :
a constitutional crisis.
8. Newly elected Parliament wld not
pass the bill
May 1862 elections victory for the
liberals
BISMARCK as Chief Minister
1. Long term strategy: to
make war on France
and
Austria
to create
a united Germany under Prussia
2. REALPOLITIK =
politicaL REALISM
3. Bismarck's realpolitik = i
ncrease the power of the Prussian state
4. p. 155 Bismarck's aims in 1862:
initially unity of
north Germany
loyal to
Prussian king
not to the
German
people
great issues decided by
might
rather than
right
Prussian leadership in Germany
would ensure Prussian might
Wanted to end Austrian leadership in the Confederation by diplomatic solution.
The capitulation at Olmutz November 1850
1. In the state of Hesse-Cassel there was an
uprising
.
2.
Bavarian
troops to repress the revolt were sent by
Frankfurt Diet
. The Erfurt Parliament also sent
Prussian
troops. Not to risk an armed conflict Prussia withdrew its troops.
3. At
Olmutz
in November 1850 Federick William agreed to abolish the
Erfurt Union.
4. Schwarzenberg proposed an Austrian
dominated "Middle Europe"
incorporating .... . The proposal was rejected .
5. In May 1851 the
old Confederation*
was restored and Austrian supremacy in Germany was re-established. The Prussians considered this capitulation a humiliation, Austria was an obstacle to a Prussian dominated united Germany.
Germany's economic development pre-1850
p. 148 Economic developments encouraged German Unity

1.The ZOLLVEREIN
economic unit of
18
states
customs barriers
were abolished
common system of
protective duties
= formation of a
national market
Prussia =
economic leadership

2. Industrialisation
growth of industrialisation and urbanisation growth of i
ndustrial middle class
Middle class supported
German unity
Prussian political situation and economic development in the 1850'sp.151-152
1. Prussia's government in the 1850's was led by ultra conservative chief minister:
von Manteuffel
2. Prussia was politically reactionary, socially
reforming
and economically
prosperous
.
3. Development of the Zollverein.
4. Austria's chief Minister, Schwarzenberg, proposed to establish a
Zollunion
between
Austria
and
Zollverein
. This plan failed.
5. So Prussia dominated the
economic coalition
of the German states and Austria had the
political
leadership of the Confederation.
6. Prussia avoided military conflict, did not take part in the
Crimean
war.
1. 3 short wars:
Denmark 1864
, Austria
1866
and
France 1870-1
2. Great improvements in Prussian Army thanks to War Minister
von Roon
. Railways were important to
transport troops
3.Economic growth =
military resources
to fight
Austria
and
France
. Key industrialist:
Krupp
who
produced high quality armaments .
4. The Zollverein made Prussia have
economic influence
in Germany, however to
counterbalance Prussia's economic predominance
, the German states supported Austria.
5. Germans had little interest in
national unity
but the middle class supported
nationalism
. Fears of French
expansion
. Popular nationalism stronger in
Protestant north
6. Prussia second-rate power .'. did not arouse
hostility in its neighbours
Britain: non-interventionist policy in
Europe
, Russia
concerned with r
eforms at home
, Austria's
diplomatic
isolation
and had great economic difficulties so

was unable to modernise her army
Prussia's Economic Boom p. 154 -156
1. Zollverein allowed exchange of goods among the German states
2. Prussia had a good
railway
system
to transport troops
3. Had plentiful supplies of
iron/steel, coal and chemicals
4. Had a good system of
education*
5. Individuals like
Krupp,
produced high quality armaments.
* German Confederation 1815 - 1866
loose association of 39 central German states created after the Congress of Vienna 1815.
*
educated workers /citizens/employers = </+ economic development
Full transcript