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Transcript of Developmental Psychology
Beginnings of Development
Nature / Nurture
(genetically programmed to grow)
(shaped by the environment)
Continuity v. Discontinuity
Is Development is fluid... continuous?
Or... does Development really occur in STAGES? (
Freud, Erikson, Piaget, Kohlberg
Stability v. Change
Does Development stop at some point and remain stagnant?
Or... does Development never really stop... keeps evolving?
Nature / Nurture
Brain and Senses Development
Impacts of the Environment... Teratogens
Ex. F.A.S. (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome)
Theories of Development
Piaget's Stages of Cognitive Development
http://streaming.factsonfile.com/PortalViewVideo.aspx?xtid=44904&psid=0&sid=0&State=&title=Piaget’s Developmental Theory: An Overview&IsSearch=N&parentSeriesID=
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
Language Acquisition Theories
Inborn Universal Grammar
inborn preparedness for gaining STRUCTURE of language
Same for preparedness for ALL languages
Possible because of our inborn
Language Acquisition Device (L.A.D.)
language that is positively reinforced is what is acquired
Does not account for most actual language development
Cognitive Theory: Statistical Learning
Uneye Tednay Shuns
Infant brains are "little statisticians"
Discern syllable breaks through exposure
Infancy and Childhood
Process of Attachment
Harry Harlow (1958)
Study of Rhesus Monkeys
Showed NATURE of attachment process
Attachment NOT because of nourishment
Mary Ainsworth (1967, 1971)
Experimental studied human attachment
D.V. was infant's reactions, but REALLY...
Discovered THREE main
Types of Attachment
Avoidant (20% of children)
Secure (70% of children)
Ambivalent (10% of children)
Factors in Attachment:
Starts with ATTACHMENT:
First Connection between baby and caregivers
Babies show innate desire to see faces
This shows evidence of use of SCHEMAS
Contrasted with IMPRINTING
3-6 mos. - begin showing SEPARATION anxiety
8 mos. - begin showing STRANGER anxiety
Formation of Identity
sense of SELF as different from environment
sense of SELF as different from others
sense of SELF as connected to gender
The curious case of
Expanding Piaget's Understanding...
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Approach
Cognitive development based on INTERACTION
Each have a...
Zone of Proximal Development
COOPERATIVE learning in addition to CHILD-CENTERED learning
into EXISTING schema
into NEW schema
Topic: Important Theories of Development
Explain the maturation of cognitive abilities (e.g. Piaget's stages, information processing); Predict the physical and cognitive changes that emerge as people age, including steps that can be taken to maximize function; Identify key contributors in developmental psychology (e.g. Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky)
Mid-Term Grade Reports
A Quick Development Review
Unit 9 Diagnostic Quiz One
"Confusing Pairs" Review
1. Take a couple of minutes to look over your grade report and highlight any mistakes you perceive or question areas... I will explain in a bit what to do with these. 2. Be looking over the notes regarding Piaget's Theory of Development
Merge Piaget's and Kohlberg's Theories of Development
Exam - Developmental Psychology Wed./Thur., 3/28-3/29
Carol Gilligan's Theory of Moral Development
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
After birth, synapses form at most rapid rate
Brain and Sense Development:
Speaking of SCHEMAS (and cognitive development), let's get a brief introduction to...
Click on and watch each of the following videos (but return to this Prezi and keep going once you are done)...
Visual acuity improves along with brain growth ans sensory stimulation
Begin showing preference for familiar faces around 4-6 months
Babies stare at novel stimuli
baby likes this one...
How do we know what babies prefer?
- baby habituates (gets used to) stimuli and gets "bored"
- BUT, baby stares longer at preferred stimuli
Piaget proposed that we learn SEQUENTIALLY (in stages) and INDIVIDUALLY...
Lev Vygotsky challenged this
Vygotsky's Sociocultural Approach
Adolescence to Adulthood
In Europe, a woman was near death from cancer. One drug might save her, a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The druggist was charging $2,000, ten times what the drug cost him to make. The sick woman’s husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get
together about half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said, “No.” The husband got desperate and broke into the man’s store to steal the drug for his wife. Should the husband have done that? Why?
During Prenatal development, environmental factors impact development
... notice the facial characteristics
... FAS children are also often behind in school and display emotional instability
Continuing the look at the Interaction of Nature and Nurture, let's look at...
Critical Periods are very important for..
But let's look at a case study that shows how important it is to meet Critical Periods
Developmental studies often apply
study one group over time
compare a characteristic of different age groups at the same time
Three Major Debates Exist in Developmental Psychology
Here we see an extreme case showing the interaction of Nature and Nurture and what happens when you assume too much...