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Final Exam

Luz Martinez

on 16 August 2012

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Transcript of Chemistry

Unit 1: Matter and Chemistry (cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr (cc) photo by Franco Folini on Flickr Unit 2: Organization of Matter Chemical Bonding History of the Periodic Table Organic Chemistry The study of most carbon-containing compounds. Inorganic Chemistry The study of all substances not classified as organic, mainly those compounds that do not contain carbon Physical Chemistry The study of the properties and changes of Matter and their relation to Matter. Analytical Chemistry The identification of the components and composition of materials. Biochemistry The study of substances and processes occurring in living things Theoretical Chemistry The use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict the properties f new compounds. Branches of Chemistry Let's start from the beginning what is Chemistry?
Chemistry is the study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter and changes it undergoes.
Chemistry is central to all sciences. Research! 1. Basic Research Bibliogrsphy http://chemistry.about.com/od/branchesofchemistry/a/branchesofchemistry.htm
http://boomeria.org/chemtextbook/cch18.html Just for the sake of knowledge. 2. Applied Research To solve a problem. 3. Technological Development The making and using of things that make our lives better. Mass-
A measure of the amount of matter.
Anything that has mass and takes up space. Atom- The smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element Examples of Elements Example of a Compound Compound- A substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded Carbon Monoxide Element- A pure substance made up only one kind of atom. Properties of Matter
Extensive Property- Property that depends on he mount of matter that is present. Ex.) Mass or Volume.
Intensive Property- Property that does not depend on the amount of matter present. Ex.) Density or Melting Point.
Physical Property- A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance. Ex.) Color or Melting and Boiling Points.
Chemical Property- Property that relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it into different substances. Ex.) Rusting of iron. Mixtures Blend of two or more kinds of matter. Homogeneous Mixture/ Solution-
A substance that has a uniform composition. Ex.) Saltwater
Heterogeneous Mixture-
A substance that does not have uniform composition throughout. Ex.) Oil and water.
Pure Substance- A substance that has a fixed composition. Ex.) Water, Sulfur. Groups/Families P
s The Scientific Method! Hypothesis Experimentation Analyze Results Conclusion Observe and Research Percent Error= (Accepted Value-Experimental Value)/ (Acceptd Value) X 100 Rules for Determining Significant Figures Nature's Basic Particle, "The Atom" in 400 B.C. -Democritus.
No such thing as Atoms, all matter was continuous.- Aristotle Law of Conversation of Mass-Mass can neither be destroyed or created during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes.
Law of Definite Proportions-Every pure substance always contains the same elements combined in the same proportions by weight.
Law of Multiple Proportions-When two elements can combine to form more than one compound the amounts of one of them that combines with a fixed amount of the other will exhibit a simple multiple relation. Dalton's Atomic Theory-
1.All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.
2. Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties.
3.Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.
4. Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole- number ratios to form chemical compounds.
5. In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged. Mole- The amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of Carbon-12.
Avogadro's Number- 6.022 X 10 ^23 Number of particles in 1 mol of a pure substance.
Molar Mass- The mass of one mole of a pure substance. Electrons in Atoms Electron Configuration Aufbau Principle- An electron occupies the lowest- energy orbital that can receive it.
Pauli Exclusion Principle- No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers.
Hund's Rule- Orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by one electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron, and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin. Ionic Bonding + Atoms A Atoms B + Covalent Bonding Atom A Atom B Anion B Anion A + + + - - - - - - Atom C Atom D Chemical Bonding that results from the electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions. The sharing of electron pairs between two atoms. Electron-dot Notation An electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element's symbol. Lewis Structures Formula in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs, or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons. Unit 4: Phases of Matter Physical Characteristics of Gases Atm- One atmosphere of pressure =760mm Hg.
mm Hg- Millimeters of Mercury.
Torr- A pressure of 1 mm Hg.
Pascal- Pa = The pressure exerted by a force of one newton acting on an area of one square meter.
1 atm= 1.013 25x 10^5Pa or 101.325 kPa Units of Pressure Molecular Composition of Gases Ideal Gas Law: Avogadro's Law Liquids Fluids
High Density
Can diffuse
Evaporate, boil and freeze Solids Definite Melting Point
Low Rate of Diffusion
Definite Shape and Volume
High Density and Incompressibility Unit 5: Soulutions and Their Behavior Solutions Ions in Aqueous Solutions and Colligative Properties Freezing Point Depression Boiling Point Elevation Acids and Bases Acids Bases Sour Taste
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