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Savannah To

on 14 January 2013

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Transcript of Biology

Biology The 4 major categories that make up a living system are... Carbohydrates Fats Protein Nucleic Acids Structure Carbohydrates Primary functions Gives you energy and stores it too Lipids Structure Primary functions Stores energy
at least 2 times as more harder to burn then carbohydrates Proteins Structure Primary functions Movement of body
controls your hormones
protects against germs Nucleic Acids structure Primary functions Stores genetic material Has a ratio of 1:2:1
Medium sized Many bonds
A lot of C & H
Very long chain Small
Has N
Ring Ring Carbohydrates and lipids have many c-h bonds that stores energy BUT the energy must be transferred to ATP to be used by the cells! Vocabulary! ATP: is a nucleotide that has a big amount of chemical energy stored in its high-energy phosphate bonds. It releases energy when it is broken down (using water) into ADP (Adenine Di phosphate). The energy is used for many processes. Like energy currency for metabolism. Carbohydrates: it is an important structural component of living cells & our main source of energy . Carbon: is one of the most common elements in organic molecules. It can make up to 4 bonds. Cellulose:a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers. Condensation: is the process of water changing from a gas to a liquid. Dehydration synthesis: Happens when bonds are formed and h2o (water) is lost. DNA: (Doxyribonucleic acid) nucleic acid that carries the genetic information in the cell and is capable of self-replication . Element: Is a object that is made up of molecules and is not living unless it has carbon in it. Glucose: Is a simple sugar and is important to simple life. Hemoglobin: A red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood of vertebrates. Hormone:The secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect. Teens have a lot of this. Hydrogen: A colorless, odorless, highly flammable gas, the chemical element of atomic number 1. Also is one of the most common found element in living organisms. Hydrolysis: Is when you add water to break a bond. Inorganic molecule: It is a molecule that has no carbon. (not living) Lipids: It is a class of organic compounds that are fatty acid and that repel water. Macromolecules: Is a large molecules. Ex: protein. Molecules: It is the simple structural unit of a element or compound. Monomer: is a a molecule that may chemically react to the same or another molecule. It is also a building block that makes up carbohydrates, lipids, protein and nucleic acids. Monosaccharide: Is any class of sugars that cant be hydrolyzed to give a simpler sugar. Nitrogen: Is a chemical element that is colorless and odorless. It also makes up 78% of the earths atmosphere. Nucleic acids: Is a complex organic substance present in living cells, esp. DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain. Organic molecules: Is a molecules that is normally found in or produced by living organisms. Oxygen: Is what living organisms breath in and one of the many things a lining organisms need to survive. Phospholipid: It is a group of fatty acids. Phosphorus: Is number 15 in the atomic element table. Polymer: Is a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers. Polysaccharides: carbohydrate whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together. Proteins: Is a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells. RNA: Ribonucleic acid, a nucleic acid present in all living cells. Starch: a complex carbohydrate found chiefly. Fun Facts! All living things or once living organism are composed of carbohydrates, lipids, protein and nucleic acids. Both living and nonliving things are composed of compounds, which are themselves made up of elements joined by energy-containing bonds such those ATP. Macromolecules as lipids that contain high energy bonds. Living systems are made of complex molecules that consist mostly of few elements especially carbon, hydrogen, oxygen , nitrogen and phosphorous. The 6 most common elements in organic molecules are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur. The significance of carbon in organic molecules is it that, if a molecules has carbon in it then that means its living. Also it can bond up to 4 times. The significance of both water and carbon is that, if theirs no carbon then the molecules is not living. Water breaks bonds. The most common complex molecules that makes up livings organisms are carbohydrates, lipids, protein and nucleic acids. If essential elements were withheld from developing cells we would not be able to make some types or cells, not be able to move, be sick all the times, look like a dead and have no energy. So we would be like a living zombies! Units of Life Cells All organisms are made of cells. Water is 2/3 of its weight. Characteristics of Life Cell structure
Function Cells carry out the many functions needed to live. They produce more cells by growing then dividing. Cell membrane is an organelle that lets things move in and out of it. Cell wall protects a plant. Chloroplast is used photosynthesis to make ATP which is energy for the cell. Cytoplasm protects the genetic information of the cell. Golgi apparatus carry out the processing of proteins. Mitochondria produces energy for the cell. Nucleus is the brain of the cell. Vacuoles in plant cells store the water. Plant and animal cell are different and similar at the same time. They both have eukaryote , mitochondria and Golgi. The plant cell is more like a brick and the animal cell is more round. Chloroplast in the process of photosynthesis. Cytoplasm is in the process of photosynthesis. Viruses are the composed of at least genetic material and a protein channel protecting the genetic material and allowing viruses to recognize the host. Some viruses also have a phosphorous envelope.
Bacteria is smaller then viruses and some can be helpful. Some structures in the modern eukaryote cell developed from mitochondria and in plants chloroplasts. Cellular Transport Diffusion is when particles from a high concentration to a low concentration. Osmosis is when water goes from a low concentration to a higher concentration. Active Transport is the movement of molecules across a cell membrane into a higher concentration. It also requires a energy. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and function to serve the needs of organisms for food, air, and waste removal. The way in which cells function is similar in all living organisms. Vocabulary! Active Transport is the movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration. Autotroph is organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide. Bacteria is a member of a large group of microorganisms lacking organelles , including some that can cause disease. Biological Evolution is any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. Cell function is the job of the cell part. Cell membrane the membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. Cellular Differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Cell wall is a rigid layer lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants. Chloroplast a plastic that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place. Chromosome is a strand of DNA in a nucleus that carries the genetic information in mammals. Cytoplasm is the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus. Diffusion is the movement of particles from a high concentration to a low concentration. DNA is an acronym that stands for Deoxyribonucleic acid. Eukaryote is organism whose cells contain complex membrane-bound structures and a cell nucleus. Golgi apparatus is a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport. Mitochondria a organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. Nucleus is the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth. Organelle any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell. Osmosis is movement of molecules from a low concentrated solution into a a high concentrated solution. Producer for an example the food chain. A vegetable plant gets eaten by a predator then is eaten by a bigger predator. Prokaryote is a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles. Protein is a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids. Ribosome is a minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. Vacuole is a space inside the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid. Virus is a piece of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) wrapped in a thin coat of protein. Also can be harmful. The difference between living and nonliving systems is that living systems have to repair themselves to prevent them from disintegrating into non-living. The differences between grow and development is grow makes the cell size bigger and the number of cells stay the same. Development completely changes the cell and the number of cells may increase or decrease. Organisms sustain life by getting energy. Without getting energy organisms will die. Transforming is another part of living cells. Releasing energy and matter helps the cell get ride of waste or too much of something. Balance of Life multicellular organisms, cells are specialized to carry out specific functions such as transport, reproduction, or energy transformation. The Nervous system Function: produces blood cell, protects the organism. The Integumtary system The Excretory System Functions: removes waste. The Digestive system Function:Breaks down food The Muscular system Functions: Controls movement of the body. The Circulatory system Functions: transport O and nutrients to cell and transports watse away from cells. The Skeletal systems Functions: shapes the body protects the organism. The major body systems are the:
Muscular Respiratory
Skeletal Structures: brain, spinal cord. Interactions: transmit signals to the other body systems. Function: protects the body from outside damage. Structures: skin, hair, nails. Interactions: is a physical barrier in the immune system. Structures: lungs, kidneys, bladder. Interactions: digestive system to breaks down food and gives it waste. Structures: butt, mouth, throat, bladder,both intestines Interactions: circulatory system distributes food around the body. Structures: smooth ,cardiac, skeletal muscles. Interactions: works with the skeletal system to help move the body. Structures: heart, veins. Interactions: Respiratory system exchanges O and Co2 with lungs. Structures: bones, tendons. Structures: works with muscular systems to move the body. The major systems work together in animals and plants. You need to eat right, excise and drink a lot of water to have a health body. Vocabulary Anatomical characteristic: is structural composition in relation to tissues histology and anatomical planes. Behavioral response: is the actions or reactions of a person or animal in response to stimuli. Cellular function: it is what the cell does. Cellular communication: when cells interact with each other. Cellular regulation: is when cells give waste to maintain homeostasis. Cellular response: is when cells response to the body and brain or bacteria. Embryo: Animal cell in the early stages. Environmental influence: is when the environment influences the out come of cells. Enzyme: is a chemical reaction that speeds up systems. Equilibrium: it is when everything is is equal. Gills homeostasis: when gills get raid of waste to maintain homeostasis. lungs: exchanges O and Co2. Membranes: is the basic structures of cells. Natural selection: is when an animal adapts to its environment. Neuron: is what your nervous tissues it made out of. pH: is a scale of how much something has of acidity. Physiological change: is a change in physical structures. Regulatory response: is when the systems give the brain regular responses. Structural specialization: when a structure is unique. Inheritance of Life Inheritance of Life 1. Cell division, growth and development are the consequences of Mitosis and Meiosis. Both increase cell number, size of the cell and cell production. 2. Mitosis cells have the same chromosome thought out the process but in Meiosis the cells only have half the chromosomes. 3. Only mutations occur in gametes can be passed on to the offspring because only gametes can be passed on to the offspring. 4. Many mutations can happen in the progeny if there is somethings wrong with the gametes. 5. Sperm and eggs have only have DNA in them. 6. Cancer is the gene mutation in a cell that causes a result in uncontrolled cell division. Exposure of cells to certain chemical and radiations increases the chances of cancer. 7. Reproduction happens to all living thing; because no organism lives forever. Some organisms reproduce asexually. 8. There are 2 ways that organisms reproduce sexually and asexually. Asexually does not need another partner. While sexually does. 9. Sexual offspring have a greater chance of being very different then the partners. Asexual reproduces exact copy of its parent. 10. There are many combinations between sexual organisms. Cell division: the process in reproduction and growth by which a cell divides to form daughter cells. Cancer: the disease caused by an uncontrolled division of abnormal cells in a part of the body Carcinogenic: having the potential to cause cancer. Chromosome: a structure of nucleic acids & protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information. Chromosome pair: a chromosome is an organized building of DNA & a protein that is found in cells. Crossing over: the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring. Deletion: the loss or absence of a section from a nucleic acid molecule or chromosome. DNA replication: the basis for biological inheritance, is a fundamental process occurring in all living organisms to copy their DNA. Diploid: containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent. Duplication of genes: is the copy of genes. Haploid: having a single set of unpaired chromosomes Gametes: are sperm and eggs. Genetic Variation: variation in alleles of genes, occurs both within and among populations. Jumping genes: a segment of DNA that can become integrated at many different sites along a chromosome Karyotype: the number and visual appearance of the chromosomes in the cell nuclei of an organism or species. Meiosis: A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each with half the chromosome number of the parent cell. Mitosis: A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each the same as the parent nucleus. Mutation: the changing of the structure of a gene, resulting in a variant form that may be transmitted to subsequent generations. Progeny: a descendant or the descendants of a person, animal, or plant; offspring: "the progeny of mixed marriages. recombination: the rearrangement of genetic material. Sex Cell: a spermatozoon or an ovum; a cell responsible for transmitting DNA to the next generation. sex chromosomes: a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
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