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Transcript of Sponges
Sponge Structure Sponges are asymmetrical
They are a variety of colors,
shapes, and sizes. Some are ball shaped,
and some have branches.
They carry on the same life
process as all animals do. Sponge Facts Sponges are classified in invertebrate
More than 5000 species have been
Mainly Sessile Organisms
Live in Marine Biomes, but about 150
species live in Freshwater environments. Sponges Are... Filter Feeders!
filter small food
particles out of the
water to eat. Multicellular Organisms
Cells differentiated to perform
functions to help it survive
Functions of different cell types
Sponge embryo's Do Not
develop endosperm or
Cell Organization If you were to take a
live sponge and put it
in a sieve, the cells
would come together
and make new sponges.
This is called reaggregation Reaggregation Biologists hypothesize
that sponges evolved
directly from colonial
Sponges exhibit a major
step in the evolution
of animals. Reproduction Sponges can produce both Sexually,
and Asexually, though most produce
sexually. Asexual Reproduction Depending on the species, sponges can reproduce by budding, fragmentation, or formation of gemmules.
An external growth, called a bud, can form on a sponge.
If a bud were to drop off, it then can float away, then settle and grow into a sponge. Sometimes though, Buds don't break off.
The buds can then form a colony of sponges.
Often fragments of the colony break off and make new sponges. Budding in Asexual Reproduction Freshwater Sponge Reproduction Some freshwater sponges produce seedlike particles (otherwise known as Gemmules) in the fall when the waters are cool.
The Adult sponges die over winter, but their gemmules survive and grow into new sponges in spring time because the water is warm. Sexual Reproduction Some sponges have seperate sexes, but majority of sponges are Hermaphrodites. Hermaphrodite A Hermaphrodite is any animal that can produce sperm, and fertilize eggs.
Other animals that do this include certain Snails, Slugs, Plants, and even some Fish. Being a Hermaphrodite is actually really helpful for sponges. It increases the likelyhood that fertilization will occur, as well as in other sessile animals. The Eggs and Sperm form from Amoebocytes
External Fertilization occurs outside the sponges
Internal Fertilization is when eggs inside the sponge body are fertilized by sperm carried in with water. Fertilization During Sexual Reproduction, sperm released from one sponge can be carried by water currents to another sponge. Support Systems Sponges are Soft bodied invertebrates
Can be found at depths to about 8500m Sponges internal Structure gives support and can also help protect them from predators Internal Structure How Spicules Support Sponges Some sponges have sharp, hard spicules between cell layers.
These spicules may be made of glass-like material or calcium carbonate.
They can be classified according to shape and makeup of spicules, and/or frameworks. Defense Systems Some sponges create chemicals that are toxic to fish and other predators.
Some species have thousands of tiny, sharp needlelike spicules, which make it hard for other animals to eat them. The internal Framework of a sponge is made of either silica or spongin. Besides sharp spicules, some sponges may have other defense methods.
The spicules of deep water glass sponges form a rigid framework. Sponge Structure A sponge is made up of 2 layers of cells, with no body cavity.
Between the two layers, is a jellylike substance called Mesohyl.
Mesohyl contains other cells, as well as the components of the sponges internal support system. Osculum Large opening at the top of the sponge
Water and Wastes exit through this. Sponges have no tissue, organs, or organ systems.
They have Specialized cells that perform all functions to keep them alive. Structure Porocyte Otherwise known as the Pore cell
Pore Cells allow water carrying food and oxygen into the sponge body Amoebocytes Amoebocytes have three different jobs.
Carry nutrients to other cells
Aid in Reproduction
Produce chemicals, which help make up spicules of sponges
These cells are found in the Mesohyl of the sponge. Spicules Form hard support systems of sponges.
They are small needlelike structures located between cell layers of a sponge Ositium Ositium are the pores in the sides of the sponge
These allow water to come into the Sponge
Also known as Incurrent Pores Choanocytes Also known as the Collar Cells
They line the cell interior of sponges
Each one has their own flagellum that whips back and forth, drawing water into the sponge Resources http://7salemanimalkingdom.wikispaces.com/sponges
And of Course- Glencoe Science Presents- Biology: The Dynamics of Life Book