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Transcript of Ancient Rome
Civilization Etruscan Civilization This civilization of sophisticated people existed in
modern day Italy before the development of Rome. At this point the Etruscans, Greeks and Carthaginians were competing in Mediterranean world. Lived in Etruria, 800 BCE about 753 BCE about Romulus and Remus Twin boys of Rhea Silvia, priestess, and Mars. The twin boys were set in a basket across the
Tiber River by their mother. They were raised by
a female wolf and eventually raised by a shepherd. The myth has various versions. All end with Romulus
killing his brother Remus and became the first king of Rome, a city set for greatness. This is the origin of the city. Rome had grown quickly; there was a shortage of women. Romulus asked for alliances to be fixed with the Sabines. He was rejected. Rape of the Sabine women Rape means abduct. Many of Rome's neighbours were visiting for a festival. Romulus gave a command at which the Romans grabbed the Sabine women and fought off the Sabine men. The women then were charmed into accepting 750-745 BCE about about 616-579 BCE Rome falls under the command of Etruscans Rome is doing well, trading with the rest of the Mediterranean world and growing quick Romulus was the first of the seven legendary kings of Rome. Lucius Tarquinius Priscus and Servius Tullius were the legendary fifth and sixth kings of Rome. Also the first two of the Etruscan dynasty. Servius Tullius created new urbanizing changes. Social organization into Tribes rather than family and the first census. Creating organization of population. Gave Romans rights, depending on gender, tribe, and class Armed soldiers to protect the city. Senate ! beginning of the republic a new leadership 5th Century BCE The Romans were becoming dissatisfied Etruscan rule.... Lucretia noblewoman and wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus Rape of Lucretia Sextus Tarquinius, son of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus ( 7th king) was sent on an errand to Collatia. He was met at the governors house (Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus). There Sextus was welcomed by Lucretia, the wife of Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus. The story has a variety of plots, but they end
with Sextus forcing himself upon her threatning he
would kill her. Lucretia ends up killing herself. Known as a political symbol. Brutus organized attack that overthrew the Etruscan monarchy 509 BCE Roman Republic began Res Publica, Immediate cause public matter known as Senātus Populusque Rōmānus The senate and the people of Rome Was result of the Romans overthrow of the monarchy and their hatred towards the kings who made all rules. They developed a republican government Republic - a political system in which a country is ruled by law, has representative government, and is democratic in nature Republic Government System 2 Consuls acted as Head of Government PATRICIANS 1 year term
Chose the Senators
Ran the government, overseeing the work of other government officials.
Directed (commanded) the army
Acted as judges Senate (300 members) PATRICIANS Life term
Advised the consuls. Advised the Assembly.
Directed spending, including tax dollars
Approved or disapproved laws made by the AssemblyMade decisions concerning relationships with foreign powers Assembly Elected the 2 Consuls
Elected government officials including judges.
Voted on laws suggested by government officials
Declared war or peace PLEBEIANS Patricians Plebeians The patricians were the upper class, the nobility and wealthy land owners. The plebeians were the lower class. Nicknamed "plebs", the plebeians included everyone in ancient Rome (except for the nobility, the patricians) from well-to-do tradesmen all the way down to the very poor. Similarities Differences Family structure
Everyday activities Social life
Lifestyle Daily life differed between rich and poor The ancient Romans started their day with breakfast.
Then, they got dressed to go out.
The kids went school.
Once they got dressed, the adults might wander down to the Forum to do their shopping and banking.
Next stop, the baths!
Every day included a trip to a temple or two.
In the afternoon, wealthy Romans took some time to rest at home. The poor worked constantly.
When the kids got home from school, they played with their friends, their toys, and their pets.
Dinner was different for the rich and the poor.
But all Romans could enjoy the spectacles admission was free! Women, unfortunately, had no say really. The poor and rich 264 BCE Rome expanded a lot throughout it's history but also went through extreme danger as well. Attacked by the Gauls 390 BCE but managed to strike back and disperse of them. This marked Rome's first expansion to the north Italian Peninsula Etruscan Influence Land & Geography Sicily became a major supplier of grain. The need for cooking oil was great and Spain supplied it. The Carthaginians were the greatest maritime power in the western Mediterranean. With Romes growth and expansion the Carthaginians became concerned. Punic Wars 264-146 BCE Three fateful clashes between Rome and the Carthaginians. The most dangerous was the second. Hannibal was the Carthaginian military leader. Iberian Peninsula With Rome's increase in expansion and military power ( arms and armour). Tension began between the Romans and Carthaginians over power. Rome won the first of three wars. (264-261 BCE) Hannibal ,the son of Hamiclas Barca, did a lot to get his father's army back to full strength. Hannibal hated the Romans after they defeated his father. In 218 BCE, Hannibal led an attack by crossing the alps. Hannibal lost a lot of his soldiers and elephants after the crossing.
40000 became 26000
37 elephants and only left with 1 STILL MANAGED TO DEFEAT THE ROMANS Defeated 86000 Roman soldiers in one day. Battle of Cannae Hannibal managed to conquer most of the Italian peninsula. Roman's final victory came at the Battle of Zama (202 BCE). Under the leadership of Scipio Scipio, in an amazing move, sailed to Carthage and invaded the city. When Hannibal returned, he could not do much and lost at the battle of Zama. The Carthaginians were humiliated and paid heavy toll to Rome.
pay war reparations
forfeit commercial empire
Rome had the potential to become a huge force in the Mediterranean with the downfall of the Carthaginians The Romans used patient guerilla warfare and phalanx Conflict in the Republic 2nd century BCE The gap between the rich and poor was widening just as Rome became the dominant people in the Mediterranean. Soldiers returned home to find their land lost to wealthy land owners. This new-found wealth and commercialism would lead to the downfall. The Republican Republican Law Rome developed codified laws the moment they became a Republican. It began when the Senate wrote the twelve tables, set of laws in twelve categories,
written in Latin. If you are called to go to court, you must go.
If you don’t show up, you can be taken to court by force.
If you need a witness to testify and he will not show up, you can go once every three days and shout in front of his house.
Should a tree on a neighbor's farm be bend crooked by the wind and lean over your farm, you may take legal action for removal of that tree.
If it's your tree, it’s your fruit, even if it falls on another man’s land.
A person who had been found guilty of giving false witness shall be hurled down from the Tarpeian Rock.
No person shall hold meetings by night in the city.
A dead man shall not be buried or burned within the city.
Marriages should not take place between plebeians and patricians. (As time went on, this law was changed. When the tables were first written, this was the law.) 451 BCE People were treated according to their status. Rich were lucky
Poor were not Twelve tables was written in stone for everyone to see CODE OF HAMMURABI Beliefs in Republic To "testify" was based on men in the Roman court swearing to a statement made by swearing on their testicles. Romans built a complex identity for themselves. They mixed Greek, Roman, and Etruscan deities and worshiped all. They were also the first to develop superstitions. Gods The Romans took the Greek Olympian gods and created the Dei Consentes. Basically the Olympians that the Greeks worshiped became the Dei Consentes for the Romans. The Dei Consentes were the Roman council of the 12 most powerful gods in the heavens and it gave the Romance confidence knowing they had such protection. Greek Name / Roman Name
Zeus / Jupiter
Hera / Juno
Poseidon / Neptune
Athena / Minerva
Ares / Mars
Aphrodite / Venus
Apollo / Apollo
Artemis / Diana
Hephaestus / Vulcan
Hestia / Vesta
Hermes / Mercury
Demeter / Ceres Because of the different adopted Religions, the Romans had thousands of gods, they believed the gods existed everywhere. Partly like the Egyptians Deities Romans had a strong belief in minor deities and all forms of magic Etruscan The Romans inherited laying curses, casting spells, and predicting the future. The priests of ancient Rome would create special days to honour certain gods. Do ut des - "I give so that you might give" This was a basic principle where giving animal sacrifice to the gods for help in times of crisis. Family Life Family unit was important, however it was not as open as it is today. The male had complete rule over his family, and even had the right to abuse and/or kill hill his family. Owning property was important, a lot of which was shared through family lines(clans, usually the males side). Any actions that would damage the integrity of that family or clan was met with punishment. Inheritance was through the male line, so having a son was crucial. Adoption happened; if a woman repeatedly gave birth to daughters, the husband had a right to leave her because it was her fault.
Marriage was more a duty rather than love. Role of Women Girls educated in their homes or school until marriage
Roman women had small independence where they were allowed to go out alone
Girls got married at 15 and possible pregnant at 12
Two forms of marriages, arranged and love but consent was needed either way
Divorce was simple, inform a messenger to take belongings away Language Romans spoke in Latin Favourite materials were papyrus, parchment, pens were dipped in ink Decline of Republic With the men who served in the army left with little to live for, a man named Gaius Marius created a standing army, a permanent force. It would actually pay the soldiers rather than them being volunteers. Roman Legion The army was organized into legions. Each legion has 6000 men. Each legion has its own leader, its own banner, and its own number. Just as Rome had several territories, each territory had their own legion. A legionary's uniform included a rectangular shield, a short sword, a dagger, a metal jacket, a belt, a helmet, a kilt, a shirt, and hobnailed sandals. The legion wore special hob-nailed sandals. These sandals would make loud noises when walking. The loyalty of the people is shifting away from the constitution This army now dominated Rome People hated the republic, especially the lower class, they began to listen to generals of the army for support. Julius Caesar The government and land of Rome was split between three men. Julius Caesar
Crassus Crassus was the first of the three to die. He died at the hands of the Parthians (Persia, or modern day Iran). 53 BCE The senate no longer cared about the un-wealthy This was an unofficial alliance, mostly kept in secret. They each ruled the government of all of Rome between themselves. After Julius invaded Gaul he gained a legion that was completely loyal to him. The others just fought under whoever their ruler was. Pompey, fearing Julius' power and expansion, asked him to disband his army. Julius did not agree and crossed the Rubicon( a small river in northeastern Italy) and invaded Rome with his army. This was an illegal act. Pompey had the support of the Senate, who hated Caesar While Caesar had the support of the people (plebs), the same people who get nothing from the senate. This war between the two lasted from 49 -45 BCE. After defeat in Greece, Pompey fled to Alexandria in Egypt hoping for safety from Caesar. However, the pharaoh Ptolemy killed him because he knew Caesar would win. Ptolemy wanted to side with Caesar, but Caesar started a war with Egypt. Afterwards, Cleopatra became his mistress and he granted her power of Egypt. The people loved Caesar and voted on him having full power. Caesar became selfish and appointed himself as dictator for life. Ides of March About 60 members of senate killed Caesar on the day known as the March 15, 44 BCE From Republic to Empire Series of conflicts emerged as to who should have power Augustus Octavian was elected sole Roman leader after Mark Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. His name was changed to the semi-divine Augustus. 31 - 27 BCE Created a few new changes
Augusts ruled the strong provinces
Allowed the senate to control the smaller ones
Augusts began to take control of everything in the Roman world and at the same time win people over. Thus solving the conflicts between the wealthy and un-wealthy.
This included Pontifex Maximus, chief priest. He used this to create a strong religious belief with the people Augustus cleverly portrayed himself as a quasi-divine, saying he was a descendent of Venus
He created a god-like aura around himself and ultimately became the first emperor Augustus' rule was known as the Principate. Which meant Augustus was first among equals. Augustus was the adopted son of Julius Caesar - Augustus created a period of peace and no wars. something the people of Rome wanted.
-Augustus created 82 temples in Rome alone
-Solved problem of warring armies
-Supplied Rome with clean water
-Added 800 miles of roads
- Created interesting entertainment Provinces derived from provincia, which meant area of responsibility Augustus ruled his whole life The next few emperors were mediocre Romans began to lose identity ,that they once had with Augustus, over the next century. 1-2 century CE During much of the second and third century, the Romans were safe and went through a few emperors. Diocletian 284 CE In 293 CE Diocletian divided the Roman empire into East and West. He also made an attempt to eradicate the Christian faith Diocletian or die ! Constantine the Great First emperor to be a Christian. Constantine favoured the christian communities. He created a new city, Constantinople, which was given constitutional authority equal to Rome. vision for a new Eastern Christian Empire, Church of Holy wisdom Still stands today and used as a mosque and museum 360 CE Christianity is state religion The Empire Barbarians Attack from the North Visigoths and Ostrogoths Alans Franks Suebi Western Empire Falls Eastern Empire Continues Arts Italian Peninsula Surrounded by sea, or the Mare Nostrum
Separated from the rest of Europe by the alps, a mountain chain
Fertile from coastal plains, and the Tiber river
Being so close to the Tiber river (406 km long) the Romans realized they had fertile land and soon began to plant crops and gained attention
Soon, with Rome's growth, the Latin villages around Rome joined - spot had mild climate, good farmland, strategic location
• Built city on seven hills that could be defended
- farmed at base of the hills; lived on hilltops
• City was close to Mediterranean Sea and its trade routes
- lay next to Tiber River, which aided trade and provided protection • Romeʼs location on Italian Peninsula helped its development
- peninsula—land surrounded on three sides by water
• Roman ships could sail to other lands surrounding Mediterranean
- helped in conquering new territories, developing trade routes
• Alps, Apennines mountains protected Rome, but didn't isolate it
• Italyʼs large plains made farming easier than in Greece Greek Influence The Romans took numerous ideas from the Greeks.
For example : Military techniques, cultural ways, language, slaves, social structure, education, architecture, trade, and even the Gods Just like the Greeks, the Romans took several ideas from the Etruscan civilization Numerals, blood sports, belief in Hades and the underworld, foretelling the future through natural phenomena ( black magic), political affairs Chariot Racing Looking back... Greek
vs Persia Antony was Julius Caesar's nephew. Mark Antony and Augustus had formed an alliance which soon, just like the First Triumvirate, led to conflict and the defeat of Mark Antony. Social Structure Remained the same as the Republic. Male's being dominant, education, women. One social change was the public bathing facility. Women Did not change much, however they were starting to make names for themselves. Julia Domna, became a recognized empress and political leader. Nicknamed Mother of Senate. Eumachia became first public priestess Slavery Human Rights were unknown Slaves were used for labour jobs, gladiators, construction, executioners, clear corpses. etc
Slaves were also put up for auction and sometimes even used for sexual desires Held plays and dances in theaters
Colosseum for entertainment and games
Sculptures of heads
They often painted battle scenes. These were displayed in temples or in public buildings
The Romans painted murals. These depicted everyday scenes around Rome and mosaics were popular. Christianity (Eastern) During the time of the Roman empire Christianity became popular. Mostly because of a promise of life after death and the sense of equality. Christianity made people have a stronger focus on their lives and it became a driving force for the people. Western Empire Beliefs With the split of the Empire, the Western empire did not have a state religion or a sense of identity. The people still worshiped thousands of different deities including Isis from Egypt and Mithraism of Persia. This city was located in the Eastern Empire Immense pressure from North Lack of exports, caused problems in economy No effective ruler No money for army, less defense, no prominent ruler, Roman Influence on Modern Society Architectural styles (arches & columns, domes, sculptures, frescoes, mosaics) Concrete/mortar/CEMENT
Efficient road system (followed by roads and highways today)
Mass entertainment : stadiums and amphitheatres (ancestors of modern stadiums)
Aqueducts and viaducts (the world's first bridges to cross valleys)
Thermal baths, central heating and floor heating
Roman alphabet (most widespread)
Latin language + influence on other European languages
Roman legal system (basis of many European legal system to this day)
The Republic & Senate (inspiration for modern democracies)
The Julian Calendar (including current names of the months)
The 3 course meal The End