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Isms of the early 20th Century
Transcript of Isms of the early 20th Century
Began in 1916 in Zuric, Switzerland
Born out of disgust for WWI and the nationalism and rationalism that was thought to bring about the war.
Rejects everything established
Emerged first in Germany in early 1900s
Born in response to humanity's perceived lost authenticity
Comes from what's inside artist instead of external visual world
Doesn't care about reality or facts, instead about emotions context envokes
Movement that originated in the late 1910s
Used experimentation to release imagination of the subconscious
Dreams are more interesting than reality so why don't we do plays about them?
Early 1900s Movement in Italy
Celebrated advanced technology and urbanism
Liked speed, pollution, noise, war, etc
Wanted to move forward
"Expressionism is the movement in fine arts that emphasized the expression of inner experience rather than solely realistic portrayal, seeking to depict not objective reality, but the subjective emotions and responses that objects and events arouse in the artist." -Nicholas Pioch
Isms of the early 20th Century
Tullio Crali, Bombardamento Aereo, 1932
Unique Forms of Continuity in Space
Natalia Goncharova, Cyclist, 1913
FROM THE MANIFESTO OF THE FUTURIST SYNTHETIC THEATRE
The dramatic 'synthesis', which will take the place of the traditional play, will be 'autonomous, unreal, and alogical'. Although elements drawn from reality will be used, they will be combined according to whim, and the synthesis will resemble nothing but itself. With color, forms, sounds and noises, it will, like the works of Futurist painters and musicians, assault the nerves.... The spectators will be made to 'forget the monotony of everyday life' through a 'labyrinth of sensations' characterized by the most exasperating originality combined in unexpected ways.
Excerpt from Manifesto
Every product of disgust capable of becoming a negation of the family is Dada; a protest with the fists of its whole being engaged in destructive action: Dada; know ledge of all the means rejected up until now by the shamefaced sex of comfortable compromise and good manners: Dada; abolition o/ logic, which is the dance of those impotent to create: Dada; of every social hierarchy and equation set up for the sake of values by our valets: Dada: every object, all objects, sentiments, obscurities, apparitions and the precise clash of parallel lines are weapons for the fight: Dada; abolition of memory: Dada; abolition of archaeology: Dada; abolition of prophets: Dada; abolition of the future: Dada; absolute and unquestionable faith in every god that is the immediate product of spontaneity: Dada; elegant and unprejudiced leap from a harmony to the other sphere; trajectory of a word tossed like a screeching phonograph record; to respect all individuals in their folly of the moment: whether it be serious, fearful, timid, ardent, vigorous, determined, enthusiastic; to divest one's church of eve ry useless cumbersome accessory; to spit out disagreeable or amorous ideas like a luminous waterfall, or coddle them—with the extreme satisfaction that it doesn't matter in the least—with the same intensity in the thicket of core's soul pure of insects for blood well-born, and gilded with bodies of archangels. Freedom: Dada Dada Dada, a roaring of tense colors, and interlacing of opposites and of all contradictions, grotesques, inconsistencies: LIFE
Marcel Duchamp, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919
Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917
Raoul Hausmann, 1919 The Art Critic
A conflict would exist between the various parts of the poetic reading, and this conflict was the desired result of the performance. The result would create a direct, irrational effect in the audience member. Only this irrational response is valid. According to Tzara, logic is a lie that doesn't work.
The Scream by Edvard Munch (1893)
Portrait of a Young Girl, Oscar Kokoschka, 1913
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Self-Portrait as a Soldier, 1915
The Old King, Georges Rouault, 1936
Just like art, meant to evoke emotions in audience so it is not concerned with classic form
Yves Tanguy, Indefinite Divisibility, 1942
Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory (1931)
Cabaret Scene, Salvador Dali, 1922
Max Ernst, The Elephant Celebes (1921)
A Dream Play