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Drawbacks of Using Chitosan in Drug Delivery

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by

Akmal Mohammad

on 16 December 2014

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Transcript of Drawbacks of Using Chitosan in Drug Delivery

Application of Chitosan in Drug Delivery
Prepared by,
Shaida Fatha binti Idris
Harris Bin Mohamed Effendi
Liyana binti Ahmad Shuib
Muhammad Nur Akmal bin Mohammad

What is Chitosan?
- Chitosan is an invented carbohydrate polymer where it is originally from chitin
- ~100-250 nm
- Chitin can be found naturally from the shells of crustacean and insect
Mechanism Of Chitosan in Drug Delivery
- Medium of transportation of drug // Drug-carrier
- Act of support - immobilization of enzyme
PROPERTIES OF CHITOSAN
- Non-toxic
- Biodegradable.
- Biocompatible .
- Biopolymer (hydrocolloid):
- usually, hydrocolloids are neutral/negatively charged, but chitosan has positive charge

IN THE MAKING OF CHITOSAN
Through N-deacetylation process of chitin:
- using concentrated alkali solution
- at high temperature
In order to maintain the degree of acetylation and molecular weight, it needs to control:
- alkali concentration
- temperature
- time
The higher the degree of acetylation of chitosan, the more effective it is in inhibiting the growth of bacteria

IN THE MAKING OF CHITOSAN
During the production process, the amount of chitosan produced can rise as it is added with enzymes:
- lipases
- phospholipases
Chitosan can also be found in the cell wall of fungi because :
- it is occur naturally through enzymatic deacetylation
The fungal chitosan extraction is isolated from mycelia by enzymatic digestion

DRUG DELIVERY
Alternative for transporting the pharmaceutical compound (drug) in the body
Chitosan is used to help the transportation of drug in the body
Used as capsule - said as drug carrier

Immobilization of Enzyme
Adsorption
- Accumulation of molecular species at surface
Covalent binding
- Binding of enzymes and water-insoluble carriers by covalent bonds
Cross-linking
- Bonding polymer chain to another
BENEFITS

Biopolymer
Non-toxic
Biodegradable
Biocompatible
BIOPOLYMER
- Refers to polymers derived from living organisms
- Also known as polymeric biomolecules

NON-TOXIC
- Chitosan's toxicity profile is relatively none.
- Based on natural materials

BIODEGRADABLE
- Able to degrade (decompose) back into natural environment without causing harm
- By the action of microorganism or other biological means

BIOCOMPATIBLE
- Able to coexist with living tissues or organisms without causing harm

Drawbacks of Using Chitosan in Drug Delivery
Limited capacity for drug release control
- Fast dissolution in the stomach – higher ph values
- Overcoming this advantage, by chemical modifications but has drawbacks
- Leads to unknown chemical entities

Side Effects of Using Chitosan-based drugs
- Prevent absorption of other fat-soluble substances
- Chitosan
- Allergies
- Incompatibility with other substances

What happens after?
- Eliminated through renal clearance

- Molecular weight too large, degradation by enzyme is needed
Recommendation
-The use of Chitosan to coat nanoparticles made of other materials.
-Reduce the implication on the body.
-Increase bioavailability.
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