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Social Information Processing Theory
Transcript of Social Information Processing Theory
Processing Theory of Joseph Walther d SIPT CMC VS. Face-to-Face: A Sip Instead of A Gulp Walther labeled his theory social information processing (SIP) because he believes relationships grow only to the extent that parties first gain information about each other and use that information to form impressions. The Hyperpersonal Perspective
: Closer Through CMC than in Person Critiques 1.Social presence theory suggests that text-based messages deprive CMC users of the sense that other people are jointly involved in the interaction. 2.Media richness theory classifies each communication medium according to the complexity of the messages it can handle efficiently. Walther acknowledges that nonverbal cues are filtered out of the interpersonal information sent and received via CMC, but he doesn't think this loss is fatal. Two features of CMC provide a rationale for SIP theory:
-Verbal cues: CMC users can create fully formed impressions of others based solely on linguistic content of messages.
-Extended time: Though the exchange of social information is slower via CMC than face-to-face, over time the relationships formed are not weaker or more fragile. Verbal Cues of Affinity Replace Nonverbal Cues He argues that verbal and nonverbal cues can be used interchangeably. Article 1 Using You've Got Mail to Teach Social Information Processing Theory and Hyperpersonal Perspective in Online Interactions
By: Daria S. Heinemann, 2011 Sender Feedback Social Identity-deindividuation (SIDE):
A theory that suggests CMC users overestimate their similarity with others they meet in online interest groups. Asynchronous channel: a non simultaneous
medium of communication that each individual can use when he or she desires. According to Walther, People who meet online have an opportunity to make and sustain an overwhelmingly positive impression. Selective Self-Perception- an online
positive portrayal without fear of contradiction, which enables to create an overwhelmingly favorable impression Receiver According to Walther, The absence of other cues doesn't keep us from jumping into conclusions, he's convinced that we'll likely over attribute the small information we have and create an idealized image of the sender. Channel "In Synchronous interaction one may plan, contemplate, and edit ones comments more mindfully
and deliberately than one can in more spontaneous, simultaneous talk." Self-fulfilling prophecy: The tendency for a person's
expectation of others to evoke a response from them that confirms what was originally anticipated.
Example: Believing it so, can make it so. What sets social networking sites apart from the text only CMC Walther originally studied not only the inclusion of photos and video, but also the ability to create a personal profile, build network connections (friends) and add information to other peoples profiles. The Warranting Value of Information: What to Trust Warranting Value: reason to believe that information is accurate, typically because the target of the information cannot manipulate it.
Critique: Walther’s candid assessment
Walther rejects technological determinism, or the belief that online communication is an inherently inferior medium for relational communication.
Walther’s empirical studies show that relationships in cyberspace often form at the same or even faster pace than they do for people who met off-line.
CMC users who join online discussion groups or enter chat rooms may have a higher need for affiliation than the typical person whose relationships are developed through multichannel modes.
The hyperpersonal perspective lacks a central explanatory mechanism to drive synthesis of the observed effects.
The hyperpersonal perspective has also been less explicit in predicting negative relational outcomes in CMC. Walther uses the term hyperpersonal to label CMC relationships that are more intimate than romances or friendships would be if partners were physically together 3.The third theory concentrates on the lack of social context cues in online communication. Each of these theories favors a “cues filtered out” interpretation that regards the absence of nonverbal cues as the medium’s fatal flaw. Walther argued that given the opportunity for sufficient exchange of social messages and subsequent relational growth, face-to-face and CMC are equally useful mediums for developing close relationships. Walter claims that humans crave affiliation just as much online as they do in face-to-face interactions. But, with the absence of nonverbal cues which typically signal affinity, users must rely on text-only messages. Experimental support for a counter-intuitive idea: 28 pairs of students who didn't know each other to discuss moral dilemmas. Half were told to act friendly, the other half told to act unfriendly. The mode of communication made no difference in the emotional tone perceived by the participants. Extended Time: The Crucial Variable in CMC Walther is convinced that the length of time that CMC users have to send messages is the key determinant of whether their message can achieve a comparable level of intimacy as face-to-face interactions. Since CMC conveys messages more slowly, Walther advises users to send messages more often. Messages spoken in person take at least 4 times as long to say via CMC. This may explain why CMC is perceived as impersonal & task-oriented. People will trade more relational messages if they think they may meet again and this anticipated future interaction motivates them to develop the relationship. Walther believes that chronemic cues, or nonverbal indicators of how people perceive, use, or respond to issues of time, is the only nonverbal cue not filtered out of CMC. By David Rodriguez & Elyse Stadlmayr Article 2 Article 3 By: James Farrer, PhD and Jeff Gavin, PhD, 2009 Media Richness and Social Information Processing: Rationale for Multifocal Continuing Medical Education Activities By: Stuart C. Gilman, MD, MPH and Jeanine Warisse Turner, PhD, 2001 Online Dating in Japan: A Test of Social Information Processing Theory Social Information Processing Theory (Chapter 11)
Based Solely on the linguistic content of computer mediated communication (CMC),parties who meet online can develop relationships just as close as those formed face to face though it takes longer. Because online senders select, receivers, magnify, channels promote, and feedback enhances favorable impressions, CMC may create hyperpersonal relationships.
(Socio-psychological tradition) Joseph B. Walther is a professor in the Department of Communication and the Department of Telecommunication, Information Studies and Media at Michigan State University. Communicators in CMC have the opportunity to be selective in how they can present themselves online by taking time to carefully choose which areas to disclose and which to withhold. Communicators do not have to worry about how they look, or how to get others to like them, and the sender has the opportunity to "stop and think" about what he/she wants others to know. You've Got Mail Video Clip References Farrer, J., & Gavin, J. (2009). Online Dating in Japan: A Test of Social Information Processing Theory. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(4), 407-412. doi:10.1089/cpb.2009.0069 Communicators in online settings are able, over time, to gather and construct images they might have constructed through FtF interactions. Online communicators utilize a variety of options such as timing, style, and verbiage content to create as favorable interaction environment as possible, and therefore, are able to satisfy their communication needs. Japanese online daters adapt their efforts to present and acquire social information using the cues that the online dating platform provides. Japanese users are able to find many contextual cues in the ways that others communicate. Offers support for SITP in the setting of online relationships by demonstrating the importance of small cues in online dating, in both the profiles and initials e-mails. Online dating provides tools for social cueing and contextual communication that differ from but are not inferior to the contextual tools used in FtF interactions. Heinemann, D. S. (2011). Using "You've Got Mail" to Teach Social Information Processing Theory and Hyperpersonal Perspective in Online Interactions. Communication Teacher, 25(4), 183-188. Gilman, S. C., & Turner, J. (2001). Media Richness and Social Information Processing: Rationale for Multifocal Continuing Medical.. Journal Of Continuing Education In The Health Professions, 21(3), 134. Griffin, Emory. "Social Information Processing Theory." A First Look at Communication Theory. 8th ed. New York, N.Y.: McGraw Hill, 2012. 138-150. Print. He classifies four types of media effects that occur precisely because CMC users are not proximal. Self-fulfilling prophecy is triggered when the
hyperpositive image is intentionally or inadvertently fed back to the other person, creating a CMC equivalent of the looking-glass self Social information processing theory
suggests that media selection is also based on participants’ social norms for how information is communicated in their environment and the participants’ familiarity with specific media types. Academic business communication has studied the results of media selection in organizations. This article reviews literature on media richness and social information processing theories. The concept of media richness
suggests that media choice results
from a match between the objective characteristics of the medium and the content requirements of a message. Low Warrant information: Email
High warrant information: Facebook