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# How to make a Bohr Model

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## Alyssa Vigil

on 26 September 2013

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#### Transcript of How to make a Bohr Model

How to make a Bohr Model
The Basics
An atom is made up neutrons, protons, electrons, a nucleus, energy levels, an electron cloud, and valence electrons.
Calculations
There are formulas to find the number of neutrons, protons, and electrons.
A Bohr Model deciphers the anatomy of an atom. They make it easier to see where all the parts of an atom are located.
Bohr Models
The Nucleus
The nucleus is the center of the atom. It contains the Protons(+) and the Neutrons(0). The protons are positively charged and neutrons are neutral.
The Electron Cloud
The Electron Cloud is the area around the nucleus. It is also the energy level(s).
Energy Level(s)
The energy levels contain the electrons, but there is a certain amount of electrons that can be in each energy level.
The first energy level can hold 2 electrons.
The second energy level can hold 8 electrons.
The third energy level can hold up to 18 electrons.
Electrons
Electrons(-) are on the energy levels orbiting around the nucleus. Electrons are negatively charged.

Valence Electrons
Valence electrons are on the outermost energy level. They decide how reactive an atom is with another atom.
How To Find The Number Of Neutrons
To find the number of neutrons you subtract the number of protons from the rounded atomic mass.

atomic mass - protons = neutrons
Example:
Gold's (Au) atomic mass is 196.97. Round it to the next whole number which is 197.0. Then, look for the number of protons Gold has, which is the same number as the atomic number, 79. You then set up the problem and solve.
197 - 79 = 118
Gold has 118 neutrons in its nucleus.
How to Find the Number of Protons and Electrons.
The number of protons is the same as the atomic number, so we can tell right away how may protons are in an element.
Example:
Mercury's (Hg) atomic number is 80, and because the elements are in order on the periodic table by the number of protons they have, Mercury has 80 protons. Protons carry a positive charge. The positive charge is balanced by electrons, which carry a negative charge. 80 electrons are needed to balance the 80 protons.
The nucleus (protons and neutrons) is in the center of an atom, therefor it is in the center of the Bohr Model. Then, you have the electron cloud with your electrons going around the nucleus.
Layout of a Bohr Model
Choose an element, any element there are 118! How about Potassium (K)? Potassium's atomic number is 19, so we already know that Potassium has 19 protons and electrons.
Making a Bohr Model!
The nucleus contains the protons and neutrons. You already know the number of protons, so you need to find the number of neutrons. Use the formula to find out how many neutrons Potassium has.
atomic mass - protons = neutrons
The Nucleus
The electron cloud goes around the nucleus.
The Electron Cloud
The electrons are on the energy levels. Valence electrons are only on the outermost energy level.
Electrons
Completed Bohr Model.
*Label all the parts on the Bohr Model
Round the atomic mass, then subtract the protons to find the difference.
Potassium has 20 neutrons.
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